2021/5/31新聞

各縣市疫苗施打情形
https://infogram.com/--1h7k2303rw80v2x
全球215地區中,台灣接種率排名第166名
https://public.flourish.studio/visualisation/5505820/?utm_source=showcase&utm_campaign=visualisation/5505820

北水南調 水利署推珍珠串計畫

 
翡翠水庫如今已擴大供水到雙北地區700萬人,負荷量加大,即使水利署未來完成珍珠串計畫,一路往南供水的機會也不大。 圖/翡管局提供
翡翠水庫如今已擴大供水到雙北地區700萬人,負荷量加大,即使水利署未來完成珍珠串計畫,一路往南供水的機會也不大。 圖/翡管局提供

台灣遇大旱,外界建議西部應有一條串連南北水庫的維生管線調度水源,水利署長賴建信證實,正在做「珍珠串計畫」,目前已串起桃園到新竹,接著要續做苗栗到台中的自來水幹管銜接工程,已報政院核定,未來西部的主要水庫將會管管相連,做更好的水源調度。

 

不過,水源相對豐沛的翡翠水庫是否會支援中南部供水?水利署表示,機會恐怕不大,因翡翠水庫當初是以台北的產業及人口發展需要所設計,如今已擴及雙北,近年來負荷加大,若再支援中南部,首都圈的用水風險恐怕太高。

 

賴建信表示,天氣變化難料,離上次北中南水庫滿庫已是一年半以前的事,幸好先前做了水資源調度,水才能用到今天,接下來除了期盼老天降雨,未雨綢繆的事也要趕快做。

 

他說,北水南調工程第一段是透過桃園大溪的頂山腳加壓站,把大漢溪水每天調度四十萬噸到桃園大湳給水廠,該加壓站是樞紐工程。已完成的板新二期計畫,是讓翡翠水庫供應範圍擴及新北,減少石門水庫對新北的供水負擔,「專心」供水桃園。今年二月通水的桃園連通新竹備援管線,則用石門水庫支援新竹,每日最多供應廿萬噸,及時救援新竹旱象。但石門水庫水位掉到危險值,也自顧不暇。

 

水利署表示,珍珠串計畫著重彈性調度,如翡翠水庫減輕石門壓力,桃園支援新竹,未來新竹、苗栗、台中也能彼此支援,但要把翡翠列為支援中南部的角色,須縝密精算。

 

世衛同意研究改革建議 將開會談全球防疫協定

2021/5/31 23:11

(中央社日內瓦31日綜合外電報導)奮力協調全球抗疫行動的世界衛生組織(WHO)今天同意,將研究獨立專家提出的重大改革建議,以強化世衛組織。

世衛組織領導全球對抗這次2019冠狀病毒疾病(COVID-19)危機的過程飽受批評。依據歐洲聯盟(EU)所推出並獲一致通過的決議,世衛成員國將堅定推動改革。

根據路透社統計各國官方數據結果,新型冠狀病毒迄今已感染超過1億7000萬人,近370萬人病故。

另外,世衛194個成員國的衛生部長也將自11月29日起召開會議,以決定是否啟動協商,制定一項可加強防範未來疫病大流行的國際協定。

世衛組織公共衛生緊急計畫執行主任萊恩(Mike Ryan)在年度部長會議上表示:「我們真心樂見決議裡的建議,以及決定就防疫和抗疫,進一步邁向國際協議或綱要公約。」

這些決議經委員會通過後,今天稍晚在全體會議上正式通過。世衛秘書長譚德塞(Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus)在這次一週部長會議的尾聲發表演說,呼籲加速協商以推動全球防疫協定。

由紐西蘭前總理克拉克(Helen Clark)及賴比瑞亞前總統瑟利夫(Ellen Johnson Sirleaf)為首的獨立小組表示,為了更快速因應疾病爆發,確保未來的病毒不會引發像COVID-19的毀滅性大流行,應該建立一個新的全球體制。

這些專家認為2020年初全球抗疫行動出現關鍵缺失,並表示世衛應該獲得授權,好迅速派出調查人員來追蹤新的疫病,同時及時公開完整的發現。

德國聯邦衛生部全球衛生處副處長庫摩(Björn Kümmel)上週也在世衛會議中說:「這個病毒讓全世界猝不及防。如果明天出現別的病毒,情況還是會一樣。」

他說:「同意啟動協定程序,是這次大會所能提出的最大承諾,以保證會從危機中學習;這也是確保全球衛生危機不再重演的最有效方式。」(譯者:楊昭彥/核稿:林治平)1100531

研發疫苗遭質疑 高端5點聲明澄清

2021/5/31 19:15(5/31 21:43 更新)
高端發表聲明表示,二期臨床結果如符合預期,將加速執行符合國際規範三期臨床試驗,以取得國際認證為目標。圖為醫護人員為民眾施打疫苗。(中央社檔案照片)
高端發表聲明表示,二期臨床結果如符合預期,將加速執行符合國際規範三期臨床試驗,以取得國際認證為目標。圖為醫護人員為民眾施打疫苗。(中央社檔案照片)

(中央社記者韓婷婷台北31日電)本土疫情嚴峻,疫苗需求迫在眉睫,高端疫苗在二期臨床解盲前,政府即簽訂預購合約,引發外界諸多質疑,高端今天針對外界各種質疑發表5點聲明,並指出將加速執行符合國際規範三期臨床試驗,以取得國際認證為目標。

高端聲明如下:

一、國產疫苗為國內防疫佈局中一環,為滿足國內防疫需求,本公司期待台灣盡快取得不同國內外廠家的合法疫苗,以維護國民生命健康。

二、本公司自2016年起與美國國衛院(NIH)合作研發疫苗,2020年初新冠肺炎疫情爆發,本公司即積極聯繫NIH並簽署授權合約,取得新冠肺炎候選疫苗及相關生物材料,於台灣進行研發及生產。

三、本公司執行中的二期臨床試驗係依食藥署規範執行,資料解盲後,試驗結果將呈交主管機關審查。本公司與疾管署簽訂之預採購合約,在安全性及有效性符合標準並取得主管機關核可後,方得交貨協助台灣防疫。

四、本公司新冠肺炎疫苗二期臨床結果如符合預期,將加速執行符合國際規範之三期臨床試驗,以取得國際認證為目標。

五、本公司一秉疫苗產業是國安產業的初衷,與國內外同業並肩打氣,一齊戮力同心,共同為抗疫努力。(編輯:潘羿菁)1100531

WHA閉幕 11月召開特別會議制定大流行國際條約

2021/5/31 23:07

(中央社記者唐佩君布魯塞爾31日專電)世界衛生大會今天閉幕,今年疫苗成為最重要議題,調查病毒起源轉為會員國各別表態,另外定於11月召開特別會議制定大流行國際條約,屆時如何提高資訊透明共享,歐洲、美國及中國立場受矚。

第74屆世界衛生大會(WHA)自5月24日起以視訊方式開議,原訂6月1日閉幕,但因討論進度順利,在今天下午提前閉幕。

2019冠狀病毒疾病(Covid-19)爆發全球大流行逾一年後,今年包括「大流行防範和應對獨立小組」(IPPR)、「國際衛生條例」審查委員會以及世界衛生組織(WHO)突發衛生事件規劃獨立監督和諮詢委員會(IOAC)等均提出報告,內容均強調全球應團結合作及強化對WHO的資金支持,在究責方面則未太多著墨。

會員國今年焦點放在疫苗供應,許多開發中國家發言時均強調對於疫苗的急迫性。因此進一步調查病毒起源轉為會員國各別表態。

歐洲聯盟(EU)5月26日在WHA討論疫情防範項目時發表聲明,強調須徹底調查病毒起源及如何在人類中傳播,才能控制疫情。美國總統拜登(Joe Biden)當天也表示,已經下令情報單位調查COVID-19起源,並在90 天內呈交報告。

英國「星期日泰晤士報」5月30日報導,英國情報機關如今認為,全球疫情源自中國武漢病毒研究所一種冠狀病毒外洩的理論是「可能的」。

此外,今天大會閉幕前通過包括美國、歐盟、英國、澳洲及加拿大等約60國聯手提案,將在今年11月29日至12月1日在WHO總部日內瓦以實體方式舉行WHA特別會議,審議一項防範疫情大流行的國際條約決議。

歐洲理事會主席米歇爾(Charles Michel)在今天WHA通過決議後也發文,表示現在開始準備起草大流行條約工作。

今年3月歐盟發動防範疫情大流行的國際條約倡議,得到包括法國、德國、英國、韓國和南非等25國國家領袖支持,重點是增強疫情透明度、問責制以加強國際協調合作。

在11月審議防範條約前,各國將持續討論條約內容,如何達成提高資訊透明共享的目標,屆時歐洲、美國及中國立場受矚。(編輯:林憬屏)1100531

WHA閉幕 今年國際支持台灣呼聲更明確強烈

2021/5/31 22:53

(中央社記者唐佩君、陳韻聿布魯塞爾/台北31日專電)世界衛生大會今天閉幕,今年國際更明確力挺台灣,除14友邦支持外,美國、加拿大等5國發言更直接提及台灣,加上德國、紐西蘭等多國間接聲援,讓中國多次指挑戰「一中」別有居心。

第74屆世界衛生大會(WHA)自5月24日起以視訊方式開議,原訂6月1日閉幕,但因討論進度順利,今天下午提前閉幕。

在台灣參與議題方面,今年國際支持參與呼聲更明確強烈,除教廷為觀察員身分,一向以其他方式表達支持外,14個友邦以提案、致函及會中發言等方式支持台灣參與WHA。

其中馬紹爾群島、聖克里斯多福及尼維斯、諾魯、以及史瓦帝尼等4個友邦更代表台方,分別在總務委員會及全會與中方進行「2對2辯論」,呼籲接納台灣參與。

在理念相近國家方面,美國、日本、英國、加拿大、澳洲及馬爾他騎士團在會中直接發言表達支持,其中英、加、澳三國今年首度在WHA會中明確提及台灣,具有重要意義。

另德國、紐西蘭、捷克、立陶宛等理念相近國家則在發言中強調全球只有落實包容性才能戰勝2019冠狀病毒疾病(COVID-19)疫情,以間接方式聲援台灣。

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面對國際社會特別是重要國家以公開提及台灣方式表達明確支持,中國方面則多次在會中行使答辯,指一些國家挑戰一中,是要在國際上製造「兩個中國」或「一中一台」。

雖然WHO連續第5年未邀請台灣參與WHA,但今年美國撤銷退出WHO決定後,在會議期間積極參與討論,也參與包括舉行WHA特別會議制定應對疫情大流行條約、保護衛生及照護工作人員等決議草案,顯示美國在全球公衛議題上強化領導性,未來台灣參與議題可見度仍受期待。(編輯:韋樞)1100531

紓困條例立法院三讀通過 總統令晚間火速公布

2021/5/31 21:27(5/31 21:39 更新)
立法院會31日三讀通過修正紓困條例部分條文,總統府晚間發布總統令。圖為民眾戴口罩、面罩防疫。(中央社檔案照片)
立法院會31日三讀通過修正紓困條例部分條文,總統府晚間發布總統令。圖為民眾戴口罩、面罩防疫。(中央社檔案照片)

(中央社記者葉素萍台北31日電)立法院會今天三讀通過修正紓困條例部分條文,立法院長游錫堃立即簽署紓困條例修正案公文,咨請總統公布。總統府晚間發布總統令,公布由總統蔡英文簽署、行政院長蘇貞昌副署的紓困特別條例。

立法院會三讀通過修正嚴重特殊傳染性肺炎防治及紓困振興特別條例第11條及第19條條文,明定條例所需經費上限為新台幣8400億元,得視疫情狀況,分期編列特別預算,送請立法院審議;另延長紓困條例及特別預算施行期限至西元2022年6月30日止。(編輯:林興盟)1100531

紓困補貼誰能領、如何申請?中央、各縣市措施彙整【不斷更新】

2021/5/28 20:18(5/30 12:28 更新)
本土疫情嚴峻,衝擊各行各業,行政院會通過國發會「加速因應新一波疫情紓困方案」,紓困4.0預算案預計6月3日送行政院會通過,預計6月4日第一波紓困資金就會緊急入帳。中央社記者張皓安攝 110年5月28日
本土疫情嚴峻,衝擊各行各業,行政院會通過國發會「加速因應新一波疫情紓困方案」,紓困4.0預算案預計6月3日送行政院會通過,預計6月4日第一波紓困資金就會緊急入帳。中央社記者張皓安攝 110年5月28日

(中央社網站)COVID-19本土疫情延燒,全國第三級警戒延長至6月14日,不少企業、商家及勞工都受影響。行政院訂定「紓困4.0方案」,立法院預計5月31日完成紓困條例修正草案三讀,最快6月4日上路,各地方政府也推出紓困措施。誰符合申請資格?如何申請紓困補貼?中央社帶你一次看。

 

家庭防疫補貼

 

家有國小以下孩童,或國、高中特教學生,發放一次性定額現金,每人補助新台幣1萬元,約250萬人受惠,預計6月15日起發放,三級管制期結束前出生的新生兒都可領取。

 

個人補貼

 

●誰可以申請?金額多少?

中低收入戶
每月加發生活補助金1500元,3個月共4500元

無相關社會保險者
可申請急難救助金1至3萬元

農漁民
可申請1萬元,甲級漁工3萬元

自營工作者(指獨立從事勞動或技藝工作獲致報酬,且未僱用有酬人員幫同工作者)
每月1萬元補助金,3個月共3萬元

觀光業從業人員
導遊、領隊及國旅領團人員、計程車、遊覽車司機,3個月共3萬元補助金

●如何申請?

行政院長蘇貞昌表示,去年已符合紓困資格並申請填寫資料者,無需再申請。

新申請者,相關部會將做好線上申請和後端資格審查的設計,降低臨櫃申請人流及接觸。

補貼撥付流程朝向「不必到職業工會申請」規劃,符合條件勞工可直接透過網路登錄核發。

 

產業補貼

 

●誰可以申請?

依產業別區分,擬從寬認定,目前規劃提供6大類業者紓困補貼。

1. 服務業:商業服務業、會展業者等

2. 觀光業:旅宿業、旅行業、觀光遊樂業等

3. 航空業
-航空業者及機場業者之相關使用費及權利金等補貼
-北中高機場國際航廈商業服務設施業者紓困補貼

4. 教育業
-運動產業、社區大學、留遊學服務業紓困補貼
-私立幼兒園、短期補習班、兒童課後照護中心停課紓困補貼
-高中職以下學校停課影響團膳業者食材損失補償

5. 藝文業
-藝文事業員工薪資及營運補貼
-藝文場館租金減免或規費補貼

6. 農漁業
-農漁經營者紓困補貼

●可申請多少金額?

原標準為營業受衝擊50%以上,補助薪資4成、上限2萬元,並依產業別區分,但行政院指示從寬認定,原則上將按員工人數補貼薪資每個月2萬元。

 

紓困貸款

 

●誰可以申請?

勞工、中小企業

●可申請多少金額?

-勞工最高可申請10萬元的紓困貸款
-中小企業貸款總額加碼1000億元(總金額達4000億元),且區分為3種貸款額度上限方案,分別為400萬元、1600萬元和50萬元,其中50萬元方案預計可惠及500萬小規模營業人。

 

各縣市紓困措施

 

●基隆市

1. 設立中小企業紓困單一窗口專線電話02-2422-4897,協助工商企業貸款、基隆市政府及中央相關紓困資訊諮詢及轉介服務。
2. 規劃1億元中小企業防疫喘息貸款(110年6月至12月)。
3. 提供100萬元青創融資及5年利息補貼。

●台北市

1. 失業給付線上即時申辦。
2. 失業勞工子女就學費用補助,高中職最高1萬2000元,大專、大學最高2萬6000元。
3. 住安心檢疫所、防疫旅館補貼最高14日7000元。
4. 加強版防疫專責旅館從業人員體恤補貼最高14日2萬8000元。
5. 市⺠急難救助⾦,單⾝補助3000元,弱勢家庭補助6000元。
6. 企業貸款本⾦與利息遞延繳付,最⻑展延6個月。

●新北市

1. 急難慰助
-家庭總收入平均每人每月低於3萬9000元可領1萬元。
2. 關懷救助
-按陷困各戶所需,發送民生物資。
3. 青年見習
-招募300名設籍新北市就學大專院校在學生或應屆畢業生,參與7-8月市政創新規劃。
4. 勞工協助
-提供律師費、裁判費、生活費等勞資爭議訴訟補助。
-失業勞工除子女就學費用補助,加給生活扶助金最高1萬1800元。
5. 社宅租金
-申請前4個月每月租金緩繳50%,第5個月起分12期無息攤還。
6. 稅金減收
-停業期間,減徵房屋稅及停徵牌照稅;稅款分期可展延1年或分36期。
7. 娛樂等地方稅減免
-查定課徵的娛樂稅業者,減徵5月15日至8月31日查定稅額的30%。
-飯店、旅館及其他營利事業已停用或縮小營業面積者,及配合政府防疫政策停業的場所,其房屋稅率由原3%降為2%。
-配合政府防疫政策停業的業者,停業期間停徵娛樂稅。
8. 藝文支持
-場館費用全額退費,快速核發補助款。
9.租金、權利金減收(減免期間為110年5月15日至8月31日)
-促參廠商及設定地上權業者的營運權利金,最高減免35%。
-市有不動產出租作營業使用者,租金減收50%。
-公有市場攤商使用費減收50%。
-租金、使用補償金、權利金、市場使用費等規費與各項罰緩,繳納期限一律展延3個月。
10. 罰單緩繳
-應到案日自5月15日起至6月14日止,且應到案處所為新北市交通裁決處的罰單,無須檢附任何文件,繳納期限可展延至7月14日。
11. 建期展延
-公共工程工期可申請延展;民間工程工期延長2年。
12. 交通紓困
-公車業者補助先撥付8成;新北市交通局委外管理之停車場,按同期減收比例各自分攤一半原則減收;碼頭減半收取使用費。
13. 農漁產銷售與漁民紓困
-輔導農會、漁民推出美味農業得來速。
-補助漁民、漁會宅配運費電商上架費。
新北市政府官網防疫專區設置「新北市110年防疫助扶方案」,專線電話02-2960-3456分機5298。

●桃園市

1. 中小企業融資紓困諮詢、企業融資診斷服務及政府相關資源轉介等服務,免付費專線0800-505-158。
2. 市有場館規費及權利金減免,包含桃科園區管理費、旅遊遊憩景點委外空間權利金、體育場館委外空間權利金、市有不動產房地租金、公有停車場站委外租金權利金等。
3. 失業勞工子女助學補助計畫、關廠歇業或重大勞資爭議案件勞工生活補助金及急難紓困措施。
4. 受疫情影響導致工作減班休息之民眾,公部門提供臨時打工工作機會。
5. 旅行業、旅宿業及觀光遊樂業融資周轉貸款協助及利息補貼、桃園市防疫計程車補貼、桃園市客運業者防疫物資補貼、桃園捷運定期票及回數票優惠退票方案。
6. 「肺炎疫情稅捐申辦專區」提供紓困減稅,並可展期、延期或分期繳稅。
7. 減收今年5至6月公有市場使用費。
8. 青創貸款還款展延、桃園市青年創業及中小企業信用保證融資貸款還款展延。
9. 協助桃園市農漁業行銷度難關。

●新竹市

1. 推出總金額3億元「防疫安心貸」紓困貸款,鬆綁貸款資格,商號最高可貸款50萬元,公司最高1000萬元,利率2.17%,貸款期間最長7年。
2. 因防疫措施受影響行業調降適用房屋稅率,如飯店及旅館業、電影院。受影響期間,由營業用稅率3%改按「非住家非營業用」稅率2%課徵;樹林頭夜市,將依契約規定免收租金及權利金。
3. 受疫情影響公有市場與市府公有場館,仍有營業者租金或權利金減半、暫停營業者免收租金或權利金。
4. 受影響勞工:
-非自願離職者即可領取失業給付,按平均月投保薪資60%發給。
-失業勞工可申請子女就學補貼高中職至少4000元、大專院校至少1萬3600元。
-勞工若因疫情影響造成「減班休息」(無薪假),可申領勞工投保薪資與實領薪水差額一半的補助。
-勞工在減班時段(無薪假)參加訓練課程,可申請訓練津貼補助,每小時比照基本工資160元發給,每月最高120小時,總計1萬9200元。
5. 全市建築工程工期自動延長1年,業者無須申請。

●新竹縣

1. 圓夢紓困貸款:設籍新竹縣4個月以上,年齡20至65歲、在新竹縣經營事業,小規模商業最高貸100萬元,中小企業最高貸200萬元,提供以購置或租用營業所需廠房、營業場所、機器、設備、裝潢以及營運週轉金使用。
2. 稅務:
-因疫情遭強制關閉的休閒娛樂場所,停徵車輛使用牌照稅及停止營業期間娛樂稅。
-休閒娛樂場所、觀展觀賽場所、教育學習場域等,停止營業期間降低房屋稅。
-接受隔離治療、居家隔離、居家檢疫、集中隔離或集中檢疫,2021年房屋稅准予展延,若繳納困難,可分期延期繳納。
3. 文化團體:成立各項演出及補助單一窗口,因疫情影響於演出前7日函請調整檔期或取消演出者,場地租金全數退回。
4. 勞工職訓津貼:失業勞工安心即時上工計畫(每月最高1萬2800元,最高補助6個月)及安心就業薪資補貼。
5. 農產運銷:鼓勵在地消費,協助新竹縣農會整合在地有機蔬菜農戶,推出「期間限定 在地有機蔬菜箱」促銷。
6. 防疫旅館:6月1日起,縣府提供核定的6家防疫旅館內,執行居家隔離和居家檢疫相關事宜的員工,每人每月3000元薪資補貼。

●苗栗縣

1. 工商紓困關懷專線559880。
2. 傳統市場租金減免。
3. 地方產業創新研發計畫(SBIR)加碼補助10%。
4. 建築執照展延2年。
5. 中小企業貸款舊貸展延、營運貸款、振興貸款申請延至110年6月30日止。
6. 中小企業信用保證融資貸款還款展延。
7. 安心就業計畫、安心即時上工計畫、充電再出發訓練計畫。
8. 七大稅務紓困:例如因疫情短期不用之車輛,向監理機關辦理停駛後,按日停徵使用牌照稅;因疫情停業的十大類場所可以減徵房屋稅及娛樂稅;因疫情接受隔離、治療、檢疫者,110年房屋稅可延期、分期繳納等。

●台中市

1. 5月15日至6月8日夜市或市集配合停業期間,免收租金、使用費。
2. 公有零售市場及道路型攤販集中區(非夜市),6至9月使用費減半;道路型攤販集中區(夜市)6至9月免收使用費。
3. 台中市政府資金紓困單一窗口電話(04)22289111分機31139、31141、31142、31143。
4. 溫泉使用費分期繳納,第一期僅需繳納2成。
5. 委外場館權利金及租金減免。
6. 非自願失業勞工生活補助及子女就學補助,提供生活補助每人每次1個月基本工資,最多2個月。
7. 青年創業貸款300萬元以內,利息補貼期限可由24個月延長為36個月。
8. 因疫情失業勞工,提供安心上工服務,每月最高核給80小時,每人最長以6個月為限。
9. 稅捐緩繳及減免。
10. 在台中市文化局登記立案的演藝團體,可提送與演出相關計畫內容(不含演出),審核通過後,每案最高核定20萬元。

●彰化縣

1. 幸福圓夢貸款一年免息。
2. 社福救助單一窗口1957。
3. 安心就業與訓練補助。
4. 稅捐減免緩繳。
5. 藝文紓困補助。
6. 建築在建工程施工期限展延。
7. 縣府委外場館規費減緩繳。
8. 縣內26處公有零售市場6到9月攤位租金減半。

●南投縣

1. 縣府地租減收2成。
2. 青創貸款利息補貼。
3. 建雜照延長建築期限1年。
4. 房屋稅主動調降稅率。
5. 牌照稅車輛停用免徵。
6. 娛樂稅申請核減稅額。
7. 繳稅困難可延/分期。
8. 展演活動藝文紓困。

●雲林縣

1. 文藝表演紓困補助,縣府加碼補助5000元。
2. 租稅緩繳及減免,可申請延期或分期繳納。
3. 合法夜市及傳統市場租金減免。
4. 促參案及縣有出租場館租金減緩繳。
5. 雲林縣政府企業紓困諮詢單一窗口電話(05)5522169。
6. 110年建雜照自動延長建築期限1年。

●嘉義市

1. 委外場館關閉期間租金或權利金減免。
2. 公有零售市場攤位使用費及清潔費減收。
3. 市有非公用土地租金及使用補償金減收。
4. 委外營運或標租停車場租金或權利金減收。
5. 青創貸款利息補貼延長1年。
6. 因疫情檢疫及隔離者,每人最高1萬5000元防疫補償。
7. 安心即時上工計畫再延長。
8. 稅捐緩繳主動減徵。

●嘉義縣

1. 農漁業行銷及紓困補助。
2. 租稅緩繳及減免。
3. 藝文表演紓困補助。
4. 促參案及縣有場館租金減緩繳。
5. 減收產業園區公共設施維護費。
6. 青創貸款本金緩繳。
7. 110年建雜照延長建築期限1年。
8. 原住民紓困。
9. 安心即時上工計畫。

●台南市

1. 紓困振興貸款、保薪資、還舊貸展延及營運資金等,最多可申貸1億5000萬元,貸款展延最長5年。
2. 青創貸款利息補貼6個月。
3. 安心就業計畫每個月最高1萬900元,薪資補貼最多12個月。
4. 安心上工計畫每個月最高1萬2800元,最多補助6個月。
5. 充電再出發訓練計畫,每小時補助160元,最高補助上限120小時(1萬9200元)。
6. 稅賦減收緩繳。
7. 工業區規費緩繳。
8. 促參案土地租金減收。
9. 市有土地租金緩繳12個月。
10. 勞工失業生活及子女就學補助。
11. 擴大關懷弱勢生活補助,每月加發1500元。

●高雄市

1. 紓困專線07-822-0300。
2. 齊心防疫2.0專案貸款。
3. 青創貸款還款展延及利息補貼。
4. 市有產業園區規費減半租金緩徵。
5. 市有地租金減免。
6. 公有市場攤商規費減半。
7. 安心就業計畫。
8. (線上)職訓津貼補助。
9. 勞工失業生活及其子女就學補助。
10. 稅捐緩繳減(免)。
11. 市府場館規費減緩繳。
12. 農漁業多元行銷及補助。

●屏東縣

1. 居家隔離者入住防疫旅館補助,居家隔離民眾補助每日1000元,最高1萬4000元;入住防疫旅館每日加碼補助500元,最高7000元,最高共補助2萬1000元;入住安心旅館補助每戶最高5000元。
2. 防疫旅館補助,補貼清潔封房每房最高2500元,補助清潔人力每日1000元。
3. 藝文產業減收租金50%,表演團體補助、場地費用減免。
4. 公有市場租金免收3個月。
5. 稅捐減免緩繳。
6. 物資銀行物資包擴大發放對象。
7. 公有土地、場館租金減徵。
8. 安心就業薪資差額補貼。
9. 安心上工提供就業。
10. 充電再出發職訓補助。
11. 中小企業貸款還款展延、利息全額補貼。
12. 農業大學貸款展延、利息全額補貼。

●宜蘭縣

1. 補助藝文事業營運損失:5月11日至6月8日舉辦國內展演活動、流行音樂公開售票演場會、電影國片商業映演等,因受疫情損失,最高補助250萬元。
2. 安心即時上工提供100個就業機會。
3. 失業勞工子女教育補助:高中職最高每名6000元,大專院校每名2萬4000元。

●花蓮縣

1. 東大門夜市停業期間免收租金。
2. 公有出租場館租金減收2成。
3. 縣政府優惠獎勵防疫旅館補助。
4. 109年領得建築執照及雜項執照自動展延兩年。
5. 公有房地租金減(緩)繳。
6. 稅捐緩繳減免。
7. 勞工失業生活及子女就學補助。
8. 充電再出發訓練計畫。
9. 安心即時上工計畫。
10. 急難紓困實施方案。
11. 花蓮縣青年安心創業及中小企業貸款還款展延。
12. 青創利息補貼延長至5年。
13. 原民青創紓貸支付回饋。
14. 部落景觀優化產業行銷。
15. 配合中央紓困方案,無縫銜接紓困4.0加速從優。

●台東縣

1. 稅賦減免(適用期間:110年5、6月)
-110年5、6月娛樂稅減徵50%。
-休閒娛樂場所、旅館業停用樓層房屋稅減徵1/3。
-旅館或民宿房屋稅稅率由營業用(3%)調降為非營業用(2%)。
-房屋稅分期或延繳。
2. 租金減收(適用期間:110年5、6月)
-觀光夜市、正氣路固定鋪位、第三市場、縣有非公用不動產等租金減收20%。
-觀光夜市暫停營業期間免收租金。
3. 勞工減班或失業協助(適用期間:110年全年度)
-補貼減班勞工投保薪資差額50%。
-提供6個月職訓生活津貼。
-失業勞工子女就學補助。
4. 疫情期間行政罰鍰可延期或分期繳納。
5. 單一窗口協助縣民申請房貸、車貸等個人金融性產品緩繳或延期繳納。
6. 資金融通
-繁榮家園專案貸款利息補貼展延1年(規劃中)。
-繁榮家園貸款專案額度增加1倍。
-貸款零利率補貼計畫。

●澎湖縣

暫無

●連江縣

暫無

●金門縣

1. 津貼發放,中低收入戶每人核發新台幣6000元、安心即時上工計畫等。
2. 稅捐減免,包括地方稅(娛樂稅、房屋稅)、縣有不動產租金、委託經營權利金及規費等4項稅捐費用減免及延繳。
3. 經營協助,包括補助產業專案行銷及強化電商銷售、建照及雜照工期自動展延1年及補助商圈業者購置餐具清洗殺菌乾燥設備等。
4. 產業紓困,包括串接中央紓困貸款加碼利息補貼、推動線上職訓津貼等。(編輯:王靖怡、黃靖貽)1100528

COVID-19疫苗如何解救各國疫情? 47國接種後成效解密

製作/簡毅慧、陳盈諭、范育菁
數據更新時間:2021/05/24 07:30

COVID-19肆虐全球,疫苗是全人類期待的核心解藥。嚴守一年多的台灣,2021年5月出現社區破口,累計本土病例數超越境外移入,社會大眾不得不正視疫苗庫存量、民眾接種率在防疫戰中扮演的關鍵角色。

本土疫情爆發前,台灣接種率低迷,AZ疫苗開打一個月後只開封了10%,中央流行疫情指揮中心一度擔心期限屆滿前打不完,多次放寬接種對象。直到4月華航諾富特案爆發、延燒台灣社區,疫苗施打進度才急起直追。

截至5月23日,台灣接種數來到30萬劑,現有疫苗幾乎全數打完,最新一批AZ疫苗也及時抵達,27日開始配送到各縣市。

然而,相較於世界其他地區,台灣疫苗接種率仍遠遠落後。

回首16個月來的防疫管控,台灣成績亮眼,卻因為國際政治等因素,取得疫苗之路困難重重。這使政府在揭露疫苗採購資訊時格外謹慎,陳時中也曾在記者會坦言:「我當然顧慮很大,難道這段時間我們吃的虧還不夠大嗎?」

2020年12月8日,遠在地球彼端的英國就為疫苗接種計畫開出全球第一槍,90歲的瑪格麗特·基南接種由美國輝瑞大藥廠(Pfizer)和德國BioNTech聯手研發的疫苗,被視為人類對抗2019冠狀病毒疾病(COVID-19)的重要里程碑。世界各國爭相購買、施打疫苗, 截至2021年5月22日,全球已施用超過16億劑。

為了探究各國施打疫苗的效果,中央社媒體實驗室彙整全球各國的疫苗接種率與單日新增確診數資料,分析接種疫苗的重點國家疫情現況。

衛福部表示,根據取得緊急使用授權之臨床試驗資料,需接種兩劑之COVID-19疫苗,第二劑接種後7至14天開始產生保護力。因此本文接種率數據採 完全接種14天以上、接種率達10%的國家。

截至台灣時間5月23日,已有47國達上述標準。我們將這47國根據接種率分成4組,觀察不同國家的新增確診數變化。

接種率逾10%國家新增確診數變化

*圖表右上資訊為該國使用的疫苗種類

50%以上人口完全接種,共有3個國家
50%以上人口完全接種,共有3個國家
30%以上人口完全接種,共有9個國家
30%以上人口完全接種,共有9個國家
20%以上人口完全接種,共有8個國家
20%以上人口完全接種,共有8個國家
10%以上人口完全接種,共有27個國家
疫苗接種率達10%以上,共有27個國家
*西班牙政府於3/2校正總確診人數(下修74347例),因此當日的新增確診數為負值

由圖表可以發現,在接種率高達50%以上的3個國家中, 除塞席爾外,另外兩國的新增確診數在人們接種疫苗後大幅下降,疫情防控獲得極大的進展。

位於印度洋的非洲島國塞席爾是全球接種率最高的國家,完全接種疫苗的人口高達6成。根據《紐約時報》報導,在完全接種的6成人口中,有57%的人接種中國國藥疫苗、43%則是牛津AZ疫苗。

為什麼最高接種率國家仍出現大規模感染,世界衛生組織( WHO)免疫與疫苗部門主任歐布萊恩表示正在努力調查。

塞席爾經濟高度倚賴觀光,在2021年1月便大開國境,即便如今疫情惡化,外交部長拉德共德(Sylvestre Radegonde)仍對外喊話:「歡迎遊客帶著PCR(COVID-19基本核酸檢測)陰性證明,他們可以在島上自由活動,沒有任何問題。」

除了接種率,疫情防控成效仍受各地疫苗分配方式、防疫政策、衛生保健習慣等諸多因素影響。為了更全面理解疫苗接種國的配套防疫措施、疫苗採購與分配政策,我們舉以色列、美國、英國、阿聯4個國家為例,分析疫苗、疫情與防疫政策間的關係與影響。

1. 以色列:全球疫苗接種典範

以色列是僅次於塞席爾,全球疫苗接種率第二高的國家。目前已有59.07%的人口完全接種,接種至少一劑的人口也達到6成2。以色列衛生部相關報告指出,民眾施打第一劑疫苗的14天後,感染率與確診率持續下降。

目前以色列疫情獲得有效控制,政府也宣布取消室外強制戴口罩的規定。

以色列衛生政策研究雜誌指出,以色列能在疫苗施打初期就迅速見效,是因為 政府即時啟用特殊資金購買與分發疫苗、明確訂定疫苗施打的優先順序,且精心設計疫苗推廣活動,鼓勵人民接種疫苗。

此外,以色列面積小、人口少、冬日相對暖和、全民健保、中央集權體系、基礎建設完善等特色,也讓政府能在大規模的國家緊急狀況中迅速採取應對措施。

以色列:全球疫苗接種典範

2020年12月11日

輝瑞BNT疫苗疫苗取得美國FDA緊急使用授權時,以色列就與輝瑞藥廠簽訂採購合約;以色列衛生部也在幾天內迅速批准疫苗。

2020年12月16日

確立疫苗接種優先順序

2020年12月20日

啟動接種計畫

2020年12月27日

第3次全國性封城

2021年2月初

2月初逐步解封
接種疫苗後獲得「綠色護照(Green Passport)」,才能進入體育館、教堂、購物中心等公共場所

2021年2月下旬

以、巴雙方衛生部達成協議,將為在以國的10萬巴勒斯坦人接種疫苗。

2021年4月19日

取消實施超過一年的戶外強制戴口罩規定

以色列施打的疫苗品牌有兩種。第一種是來自美國藥廠輝瑞(Pfizer)與德國生技公司BioNTech合作的輝瑞BNT疫苗,兩家公司3月11日發表聯合聲明指出,根據以色列全國疫苗接種計畫所提供的資料,輝瑞BNT疫苗對無症狀感染的保護力達到94%。

第二種疫苗來自美國莫德納(Moderna)生技公司,臨床試驗保護力為94%,台灣中央流行疫情指揮中心已向藥廠訂購505萬劑,預計6月抵台。此疫苗的測試標準品也已在5月19日抵台。

2. 美國:世界疫苗軍火庫

美國截至5月24日已有3316萬人確診,是累計確診人數最高的國家。不過,截至5月23日,全美已有1.29億人完全接種,占總人口的4成;至少接種一劑疫苗者也達總人口的一半。從上圖也能看到美國單日新增確診數呈穩定下降。

美國:輝瑞與莫德納疫苗的搖籃
註:疫苗接種率曲線不完整係因部分日期無更新數據。

2020年7月7日

美國確診人數超過300萬人,川普宣布退出世界衛生組織。

2020年12月10日

FDA諮詢小組授予輝瑞BNT疫苗緊急使用授權,是全球第一種獲得批准的COVID-19疫苗。

2020年12月15日

美國紐約州護理師林賽(Sandra Lindsay)成為美國第一位接種疫苗的人。

2020年12月17日

FDA諮詢小組授予莫德納疫苗緊急使用授權,是全球第二種獲得批准的COVID-19疫苗。

2021年2月28日

FDA諮詢小組授予嬌生集團疫苗緊急使用授權,是美國第三款能用來對抗疫情的疫苗。

2021年4月8日

英國變種病毒成為美國的COVID-19主要病毒株

2021年4月19日

全美取消疫苗接種順序限制,開放所有成年人接種疫苗。

2021年5月5日

拜登政府表態支持COVID-19疫苗專利讓渡,協助加速全球疫苗生產。

2021年5月26日

美國白宮宣布,已有半數美國成人完全接種COVID-19疫苗。

美國是疫苗研發先驅輝瑞、莫德納藥廠的所在地。川普政府在疫情初期投入數十億美元協助藥廠研發疫苗,以確保後續國人有充足的疫苗。

根據英國廣播公司(BBC)報導, 輝瑞BNT疫苗從概念到上市,僅花了10個月就走完通常要花10年的程序,而莫德納疫苗也緊接著在2020年12月獲得美國FDA核准,成為全球第二、第三多國家使用的疫苗(第一為牛津AZ疫苗)。

疫苗開打的5個月後,美國疫情回穩,如今拜登政府承諾將送出8000萬劑疫苗,並表態支持疫苗專利讓渡,讓世界各國有更多的疫苗來對抗病毒。

拜登解釋,「我們知道除非全球疫情得到控制,否則美國永遠不會完全安全。」不過他也毫不避諱地表示,面對中俄的疫苗外交,美國要成為世界疫苗的軍火庫,以價值觀領導世界。

台灣是否會成為這批疫苗的受益者?目前仍無具體答案。駐美代表蕭美琴表示,台灣已向美方表達爭取這批疫苗的意願。美國衛生部長貝塞拉5月20日與陳時中視訊會議後,也在推特發文支持台灣獲得疫苗,並肯定台灣對衛生安全的貢獻。

3. 英國:全球接種疫苗第一槍

2020年末,英國面臨嚴峻考驗:單日確診人數屢創新高、發現傳播更快的變種病毒株,英國首相強生宣布進入第3次全國性封城。當時流行病專家法拉爾(Jeremy Farrar)即表示,疫苗是「我們唯一真正的出口」。

早在去年12月8日英國就領先全球,以首批80萬劑輝瑞BNT疫苗展開大規模施打計畫,截至5月24日,已有5成5的英國人民至少接種一劑疫苗,其中也包含女王伊麗莎白二世及其他王室成員,完全接種人口也達32%。

英國:全球接種疫苗第一槍
註:疫苗接種率曲線不完整係因部分日期無更新數據。

隨著疫情好轉,英國相關社交限制逐步放寬,包含允許室內6人以下集會、室外30人以下集會,酒吧、電影院、博物館等場所也陸續開放。

2020年12月8日

90歲的瑪格麗特·基南成為全球第一個接種COVID-19疫苗的人。

2020年12月14日

英國衛生部長馬特·漢考克(Matt Hancock)承認發現變種病毒,已確認1108例。

2020年12月30日

藥品監管機構批准牛津疫苗,成為第一款英國核准疫苗。

2021年1月5日

第3次全國性封城

2021年1月8日

批准美國莫德納疫苗

2021年2月22日

強生宣布4階段逐步解封計畫,盼最快在6月21前完全解除防疫措施。

2021年2月28日

接受第一劑疫苗的人已經超過2000萬人

2021年3月8日

第一階段解封,英格蘭學校全數開放,並容許兩人在室外公共場所休閒娛樂。

2021年5月17日

放寬聚會限制,餐廳、酒吧、咖啡館等公共營業場所重新開放。

英國政府預計7月底前,所有成年國民都可以完成第一劑接種。另根據英國政府2月22日發布的逐步解封計畫,如要解封須達到以下4要件:

  1. 疫苗持續大規模接種
  2. 疫苗有效降低住院與死亡率
  3. 感染率不會造成住院率再次攀升
  4. 變種病毒不會改變風險評估

英國大多採用美德共同研發的輝瑞BNT疫苗,以及英國阿斯特捷利康藥廠(AstraZeneca)與牛津大學共同研發的疫苗(牛津AZ疫苗),不過在兩者之中,民眾顯然對國貨更有信心。

根據英國「每日郵報」報導,許多英國長者拒絕接種輝瑞BNT疫苗,希望能等到牛津AZ疫苗,甚至有醫院因為沒有牛津AZ疫苗而被長者放鴿子,為避免浪費,醫院只好找10名警察來打這批輝瑞BNT疫苗。

牛津AZ疫苗臨床試驗保護力為76%,對英國變種病毒保護力70.4%,重症保護力100%。此疫苗以相對低廉的價格大量生產,是目前全球最廣泛使用的疫苗種類,共166國使用,也是台灣目前僅有的COVID-19疫苗品牌。

4. 阿拉伯聯合大公國:中國疫苗外交第一站

阿聯的施打率數據並未每日公開,不過根據最新數據,阿聯在4月中的完全接種率為38.79%,是疫苗完全接種率排名第六的國家。從圖表也能發現,阿聯在年初歷經疫情惡化後,近兩個月來的單日新增確診數逐漸下降。

阿拉伯聯合大公國:中國疫苗外交第一站
註:疫苗接種率曲線不完整係因部分日期無更新數據。

值得注意的是,4月期間阿聯歷經伊斯蘭教重大慶典開齋節,往年人們盛裝參加聚禮、拜訪親友、熱鬧歡慶,今年因政府反覆強調防疫政策的重要性,並祭出關閉服務設施、限制祈禱時間等禁令,開齋節變得悄無聲息,但能繼續穩定控制疫情。

2020年3月

關閉學校、托兒服務、禮拜場所、商業與購物中心、肉類菜類市場,停止分發所有報章雜誌,延辦主要體育賽事,實施宵禁與疫情謠言禁令。

2021年1月21日

在醫院暫停非緊急手術,以應對大量確診者湧入的隔天,杜拜旅遊部門宣布立即停止酒店與餐廳的所有娛樂活動。

2021年4月中旬

阿聯舉辦伊斯蘭教開齋節,祭出多項社交禁令,避免疫情惡化。

2021年5月1日

阿聯政府宣布開始生產與中國國藥集團合作研發的Hayat-Vax疫苗。

2021年5月23日

部分地區自6月1日起恢復婚宴等社交娛樂活動。

此次疫情大流行期間,中國與阿聯合作緊密。截至5月21日止,阿聯共擁有1203萬劑疫苗,分別來自美國、英國、俄羅斯(Sputnik V),更有兩種來自中國國藥集團,使阿聯成為中國以外第一個施用中國製疫苗的國家。

中國外交部長訪視阿聯,並建立中國疫苗在阿聯的第一條生產線;同時,中國國藥集團也與當地企業合作,共同研發Hayat-Vax疫苗,此疫苗已於5月初開始分發、接種。

阿聯政府官方網站表示,早在去年9月,阿聯當局就已授權第一線人員緊急接種國藥疫苗,這些疫苗也被用在全球首個三期臨床試驗計畫#4Humanity,由志願者接受國藥疫苗試驗。

阿聯政府網站描述,國藥疫苗需要兩劑。不過根據華爾街日報報導,由於國藥疫苗的保護力有限,阿聯已開始對部分居民施打第3劑國藥疫苗。為國藥集團在中東地區進行三期臨床試驗的公司G24 Healthcare表示,做為科學研究的一部分,「將對部分特定人群進行第3次接種,以觀察免疫系統反應。」

綜合上述4國案例來看, 當疫苗接種率達一定程度,且搭配適當的防疫政策、維持良好的衛生習慣,單日新增確診數確實比接種疫苗前穩定許多。

面臨本土疫情嚴峻挑戰的台灣,正在等待更多疫苗到來。陳時中5月25日在記者會透露,台灣將在6月底取得200萬劑疫苗、8月底包含國產疫苗累計將有1000萬劑疫苗可用。

部分地方政府呼籲開放縣市自行進口上海復星醫藥集團代理的BNT疫苗,總統蔡英文則回應,疫苗採購皆須由中央統籌,才能獲得原廠直接保證跟負擔責任,避免法律與政治雙重風險。

至於上海與BNT合作的復必泰疫苗,中國政府至今沒有發藥證,大陸也沒有開放施打,僅在香港與澳門上市。而且香港民眾意願低落,大批疫苗可能放到過期。

蔡英文表示,過去台灣一度要訂到德國BNT原廠疫苗,「但因為中國的介入,遲延到現在都無法簽約。」如今大陸國台辦喊話願捐贈疫苗給台灣,陳時中也回得直白:「他們沒有在打的,我們有一點興趣啦,他們在打的,我們不敢用。」

兩岸關係牽動台灣疫苗採購進度,面對本土疫情延燒與現實中的政治障礙,台灣政府與全民的抗疫挑戰,才正要開始。

接種率資料來源:數位出版機構Our World in Data

防堵疫情 陳時中:6月底200萬劑疫苗將到貨 8月底累計千萬劑抵台

2021/5/25 14:33(5/26 10:58 更新)
指揮官陳時中25日宣布,預計6月將有200萬劑武漢肺炎疫苗到貨。圖為醫護人員接種疫苗。(中央社檔案照片)
指揮官陳時中25日宣布,預計6月將有200萬劑武漢肺炎疫苗到貨。圖為醫護人員接種疫苗。(中央社檔案照片)

(中央社記者張茗喧、陳婕翎、江慧珺台北25日電)中央流行疫情指揮中心指揮官陳時中今天宣布,國內6月預計將有200萬劑武漢肺炎疫苗到貨,8月底累計到貨1000萬劑,也籲COVAX平台勿因「其他因素」影響供貨。

陳時中在答覆媒體詢問時表示,8月底累計到貨的1000萬劑,是包含國產疫苗在內。

媒體詢問即將到貨的疫苗的品牌,陳時中表示不便透露,現在各方都承受很大壓力。媒體再追問究竟有什麼顧慮?陳時中說:「你問我有什麼顧慮,我當然顧慮很大,難道這段時間我們吃的虧還不夠大嗎?」(編輯:張芷瑄)1100525

不透露下批疫苗廠牌 陳時中:吃的虧還不夠大嗎

2021/5/25 15:55(5/26 10:58 更新)
指揮中心指揮官陳時中25日宣布,8月底前將取得至少1000萬劑疫苗,但並未透露疫苗廠牌。(中央社檔案照片)
指揮中心指揮官陳時中25日宣布,8月底前將取得至少1000萬劑疫苗,但並未透露疫苗廠牌。(中央社檔案照片)

(中央社記者張茗喧、陳婕翎、江慧珺台北25日電)指揮中心指揮官陳時中今天宣布,台灣8月底前至少將取得1000萬劑疫苗,包括國產疫苗,但對還有哪些廠牌閉口不談,反問「這段時間我們吃的虧還不夠大嗎?」

國內武漢肺炎(2019冠狀病毒疾病,COVID-19)疫情嚴峻,疫苗成為阻斷疫情延燒的重要防疫物資。中央流行疫情指揮中心指揮官陳時中今天宣布,國內6月底前將再有200萬劑疫苗到貨,8月底將有1000萬劑疫苗可用,也呼籲COVAX平台勿因「其他因素」影響供貨。

面對媒體追問疫苗廠牌,陳時中僅透露,8月底前將取得的疫苗當中,也包括國產疫苗,其餘不便透露,「你問我有什麼顧慮,我當然顧慮很大,難道這段時間我們吃的虧還不夠大嗎?」

此外,指揮中心今天也公布最新疫苗接種統計數字,昨天全台共有8110人次接種疫苗,全數均為公費接種,累計31萬1678人次接種;另新增14件疫苗接種後不良事件通報,其中12件為非嚴重不良事件、2件為其他疑似嚴重不良事件。

疑似嚴重不良事件方面,其中一例為接種後39天感到頭痛、單側眼睛畏光、視野缺損,疑似視網膜靜脈阻塞,目前住院治療中;另一例為接種當天出現皮疹和呼吸困難,疑似過敏反應且住院觀察,目前除肌肉痠痛及頭暈外無其他症狀,已返家休息。(編輯:陳仁華)1100525

梅雨鋒面徘徊 氣象局提醒西半部防夜雨

2021/5/31 20:51

(中央社記者張雄風台北31日電)氣象局指出,因降雨趨於緩和,已解除豪雨特報,但西半部今晚至明晨仍有局部較大雨勢發生,今天截至晚間8時累積雨量最多處為苗栗縣泰安鄉213毫米,降雨情形較昨天和緩。

根據中央氣象局網站,今天截至晚間8時,累積雨量最多處為苗栗縣泰安鄉213毫米,第2名之後皆未達200毫米,依序為苗栗縣苑裡鎮190.5毫米、台中市和平區187毫米;統計前10名中,苗栗占5名、台中4名、南投1名。

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梅雨鋒面昨天起影響台灣,單就這兩天前10名累積雨量統計觀察,今天降雨已較昨天和緩,根據資料,昨天截至晚間8時10分,累積雨量最多處為南投縣仁愛鄉232毫米,前7名累積雨量均超過200毫米。

氣象局表示,今晚鋒面徘徊在台灣上空,西半部及東北部地區仍有短暫陣雨或雷陣雨,花東偶有局部降雨,明天白天隨著鋒面逐漸往北移至台灣北部海面,水氣漸漸趨緩,白天各地降雨轉為以午後雷陣雨的天氣為主。(編輯:張雅淨)1100531

蔡總統談疫苗 國民黨:缺乏具體施打時程與規畫

2021/5/31 20:50

(中央社記者王承中台北31日電)總統蔡英文今天針對「防疫工作與疫苗進度」發表視訊談話。國民黨表示,通篇內容缺乏對於疫苗施打的具體時程與確切政策規畫,人民仍得不到想要的答案,請蔡總統明確回答,台灣何時能達到七成疫苗施打率。

蔡總統今天下午5時於總統府針對「防疫工作與疫苗進度」發表視訊談話。她表示,以現在國際疫苗供給情況,如果自身沒有供給能量,會處處受制於人,因此,擁有自己可以供應的疫苗,是國家戰略優先項目。

國民黨晚間發布新聞稿指出,蔡總統通篇內容缺乏對於疫苗施打的具體時程與確切政策規劃,記者會開完了,但是人民仍得不到想要的答案。請蔡總統明確回答,台灣何時能達到七成疫苗施打率,具體到貨疫苗數量與施打期程為何,若無法給予明確保證,人民還是會持續焦慮。

國民黨指出,當各國政府傾全力採購安全、有效的國際認證疫苗時,只有蔡政府認為「疫苗買夠了」,為何採購態度如此消極,目前僅到貨86萬劑疫苗,接種率淪為末段班,蔡總統應該給外界清楚的說明。

國民黨表示,並未反對國產疫苗,也肯定國內研發人員的努力,但絕不可為倉促上路,簡化臨床實驗程序,應該進行三期試驗,證明疫苗有效性,不可拿國民健康作為賭注。任何疫苗,要在沒有國際認證下就要求國民施打,人民如何能夠安心,政府又如何能夠信誓旦旦的保證安全有效。

國民黨指出,蔡總統通篇談話規避在野黨多項提問,只要大眾共同為政府澄清假訊息,但面對政府與民進黨近日被檢舉的大量假訊息卻沒有提出相關說法。呼籲蔡總統,應制止民進黨部分人士一再以扭曲不實訊息誤導社會視聽,影響防疫工作。

此外,前國民黨主席朱立倫今天表示,目前疫情險峻,醫療級手套使用消耗量相當大,他將捐贈50萬只醫療級手套,給「防疫熱區」新北、台北、桃園等地方政府,以及全國各地警消、醫護、長照機構,希望第一線防疫人員能夠有多一層保障。(編輯:林興盟)1100531

首批疫苗抵台 蔡英文賴清德同聲挺醫護

2021/3/3 20:03(3/3 21:43 更新)

(中央社記者葉素萍台北3日電)首批11.7萬劑牛津AZ疫苗今天抵台,總統蔡英文說,從第一優先的醫事人員開始施打疫苗,她要再次謝謝辛苦的醫事人員,全力守護全國民眾的健康安全;副總統賴清德也說,防疫優先挺醫護。

蔡總統晚間透過臉書貼文指出,感謝中央流行疫情指揮中心這段時間的努力,今天上午,第一批AZ疫苗11.7萬劑,已經順利送到台灣;接下來的施打順序,會按照指揮中心的專業指引,從第一優先的醫事人員開始施打疫苗。

蔡總統說,她要再次謝謝辛苦的醫事人員,全力守護全國民眾的健康安全。全民繼續團結防疫,一起為第一線醫事人員加油

賴副總統也透過臉書提醒,首批11.7萬劑的AZ疫苗今天抵台,大約7天後,即可施打。優先施打的人員從第一優先的醫事人員開始。

賴副總統表示,根據疫情指揮中心說明,AZ疫苗需要接種2劑,施打第一劑AZ疫苗在打完後的第22天有71 %的保護力,第二劑間隔12週施打,保護力更可達81%,同時建議2劑施打的間隔至少要8週;他提醒接種者,接種後稍作休息,觀察至少30分鐘後,確認沒有不適再離開。(編輯:謝佳珍)1100303

台北婦人確診曾到傳統市場 南市府籲自主分流

2021/5/31 17:33(5/31 18:11 更新)
台南市長黃偉哲(右)與衛生局長許以霖(左)31日下午表示,北市案8338曾到安平市場與安億公園活動,提醒足跡重疊者注意,並呼籲到傳統市場採買時避開擁擠時段與地點。(台南市政府提供)中央社記者楊思瑞台南傳真 110年5月31日
台南市長黃偉哲(右)與衛生局長許以霖(左)31日下午表示,北市案8338曾到安平市場與安億公園活動,提醒足跡重疊者注意,並呼籲到傳統市場採買時避開擁擠時段與地點。(台南市政府提供)中央社記者楊思瑞台南傳真 110年5月31日

(中央社記者楊思瑞台南31日電)台南市今天沒有新增武漢肺炎本土確診個案,市府下午公布北市案83 38曾在台南的安平市場與安億公園活動,提醒足跡重疊者注意,並呼籲到傳統市場採買避開擁擠時段與地點。

台南市政府衛生局長許以霖在市府下午的武漢肺炎(2019冠狀病毒疾病,COVID-19)防疫記者會中表示,案8338是70多歲女性,住北市萬華區,18日下午1時30分搭乘台鐵普悠瑪127車次第2車廂抵台南;25日出現全身痠痛、咳嗽等症狀,昨天前往醫院採檢確診。

許以霖指出,案8338目前在台南住院治療,疫調匡列1名接觸的家人居家隔離,個案多數時間在自宅活動,19日至25日每日上午8時至9時會到安平區安億公園步行;20、21日上午7時多曾到安平區效忠街的安平市場,時間都是上午7時多,足跡重疊的民眾若感覺身體不適可到醫院檢查。

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台南市長黃偉哲表示,案8338到市場2次的時間雖已是第三級防疫警戒階段,但當時傳統市場實聯制尚未完全普及,可能有些民眾市府無法確實通知到,因此今天特別公布這個足跡,提醒民眾注意。

黃偉哲說,許多確診個案都有到傳統市場的足跡,台南市雖尚未採取傳統市場強制人潮分流措施,但希望民眾自主性提高警覺,避開人潮可能較多的時段,或選擇市場中人較少的區域採買;進入市場前若發現人潮太多,可另擇時間採買,做好自主保護,也能保護他人。(編輯:孫承武)1100531

Israel’s rapid rollout of vaccinations for COVID-19

Commentary to this article was published on 26 February 2021

Commentary to this article was published on 19 February 2021

Commentary to this article was published on 19 February 2021

Commentary to this article was published on 17 February 2021

Commentary to this article was published on 01 February 2021

Commentary to this article was published on 26 January 2021

Abstract

As of the end of 2020, the State of Israel, with a population of 9.3 million, had administered more COVID-19 vaccine doses than all countries aside from China, the US, and the UK. Moreover, Israel had administered almost 11.0 doses per 100 population, while the next highest rates were 3.5 (in Bahrain) and 1.4 (in the United Kingdom). All other countries had administered less than 1 dose per 100 population.

While Israel’s rollout of COVID-19 vaccinations was not problem-free, its initial phase had clearly been rapid and effective. A large number of factors contributed to this early success, and they can be divided into three major groups.

The first group of factors consists of long-standing characteristics of Israel which are extrinsic to health care. They include: Israel’s small size (in terms of both area and population), a relatively young population, relatively warm weather in December 2020, a centralized national system of government, and well-developed infrastructure for implementing prompt responses to large-scale national emergencies.

The second group of factors are also long-standing, but they are health-system specific. They include: the organizational, IT and logistical capacities of Israel’s community-based health care providers, the availability of a cadre of well-trained, salaried, community-based nurses who are directly employed by those providers, a tradition of effective cooperation between government, health plans, hospitals, and emergency care providers – particularly during national emergencies; and support tools and decisionmaking frameworks to support vaccination campaigns.

The third group consists of factors that are more recent and are specific to the COVID-19 vaccination effort. They include: the mobilization of special government funding for vaccine purchase and distribution, timely contracting for a large amount of vaccines relative to Israel’s population, the use of simple, clear and easily implementable criteria for determining who had priority for receiving vaccines in the early phases of the distribution process, a creative technical response that addressed the demanding cold storage requirements of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, and well-tailored outreach efforts to encourage Israelis to sign up for vaccinations and then show up to get vaccinated.

While many of these facilitating factors are not unique to Israel, part of what made the Israeli rollout successful was its combination of facilitating factors (as opposed to each factor being unique separately) and the synergies it created among them. Moreover, some high-income countries (including the US, the UK, and Canada) are lacking several of these facilitating factors, apparently contributing to the slower pace of the rollout in those countries.

Introduction

Worldwide, the year 2020 was dominated by the health and economic harm caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. That year ended with a glimmer of hope, as regulators began to approve COVID-19 vaccines and governments around the world began to administer them.

Table 1 presents data, by country, from the Our World in Data website [1] regarding the total number of doses administered and the number of doses administered per 100 population, as of the end of 2020. The table highlights two striking things about the State of Israel, whose end-of-year population was 9.3 million [2]. First, only three other countries (the US, China, and the UK) had administered more doses than Israel’s approximately 950,000. Second, Israel had administered almost 11.0 doses per 100 population, while the next highest rates were 3.5 (in Bahrain) and 1.4 (in the United Kingdom). All other countries had administered less than 1 dose per 100 population. As of the end of 2020, Israel’s rollout of COVID-19 vaccinations had clearly been rapid and effective.

Table 1 COVID-19 Vaccine Doses Administered as of the End of 2020

As with any major accomplishment, a large number of factors contributed to Israel’s successful early rollout. This article begins with a brief overview of the Israeli rollout, and then discusses 12 factors that contributed to its early success, with the analysis focusing on the period until the end of 2020. The concluding remarks note limitations of the analysis and identify several avenues for further research.

Overview of the Israeli rollout

Israel launched its COVID-19 vaccination campaign on December 20th, but preparations for it began months earlier. Over the course of 2020, Israel signed vaccine purchase contracts with several pharmaceutical companies at the forefront of COVID-19 vaccine development. By the time the US FDA had issued an emergency use authorization for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccineFootnote1 on December 11, Israel already had contracts in place with Pfizer to purchase and receive a substantial (but undisclosed) number of doses of that vaccine by the end of December. Within days, and largely on the basis of the FDA authorization process, Israel’s Ministry of Health (MOH) followed with an authorization of its own.Footnote2Footnote3

Israel’s MOH also determined (on December 16) that the initial target groups for vaccination would be people aged 60 and over, nursing home residents, other people at high risk due to serious medical conditions, and front-line health care workers [3]. The responsibility for vaccinating each of these groups was also clearly defined at that time:

  • The primary responsibility for vaccinating the general population over age 60 and at-risk persons due to pre-existing medical conditions was assigned to Israel’s four competing non-profit health plans
  • Responsibility for vaccinating nursing home residents was assigned primarily to Israel’s national medical emergency services organization – Magen David Adom (MDA).
  • Responsibility for vaccinating front-line health workers was assigned to the hospitals and health plans with whom they work

As indicated in Fig. 1, the number of people vaccinated per day began at approximately 8000 on December 20, quickly rose to over 70,000 by December 24, decreased over the following weekend, and then rose to over 150,000 by December 29.Footnote4 All of the vaccines administered in Israel during 2020 were those manufactured by Pfizer, and the vast majority of vaccines were administered by nurses.

Fig. 1
figure1

Daily doses administered in Israel, by date (In thousands; December 20–31). Source: Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations

At the same time, not all was well with the COVID-19 situation in Israel in December 2020, Israel – like many other countries – was experiencing a major increase in COVID-19 infections [4], including substantial morbidity among health care professionals. Thus, the vaccination campaign was launched at a very challenging time for Israeli health care.

In addition, the vaccination campaign experienced labor pains of its own. During the first few days of the rollout, it was quite difficult to schedule an appointment via the health plans’ call centers or digital tools. In some vaccination sites, not enough people in the target population showed up, and at the end of each day vaccines about to pass their expiration time had to be either thrown away or given to people not meeting criteria for first-round vaccinations. Even earlier in the day, some hospitals, health plans and other vaccine providers were somewhat lax about limiting vaccines to people meeting the official criteria, thereby increasing the total number of people vaccinated, but reducing the supply of vaccines available to the elderly and other at-risk groups. At some vaccination sites, family of health professionals and members of influential unions or occupations, were vaccinated even though they did not meet the criteria. And, while vaccination sites were set up throughout the country, including in the peripheral regions and in smaller villages and towns, the rate of vaccine uptake was markedly lower than average in Arab localities.

Moreover, as of December 2020 there were many uncertainties looking forward. There was lack of clarity about when the next vaccine shipments would arrive and how large they would be [5], leading to talk about a possible temporary suspension of first vaccinations (though Israel has been careful to set aside a second dose for all Israelis and foreign workersFootnote5 who received a first dose). It was also not clear what proportion of Israelis would ultimately sign-up for vaccinations, either due to general anti-Vax sentiments or to vaccine hesitancy specific to the new COVID-19 vaccines. In addition, it was not clear how the need to allocate nurses to the vaccination effort was affecting the delivery of other health services. And, as was the case worldwide, there continued to be uncertainties about how long the vaccine-conferred immunity would last, how effective it would be against new variants of the virus, and the extent to which it prevents transmission.

Still, there is no denying that, as of the end of 2020, Israel’s vaccination campaign had achieved a great deal – both in absolute terms and relative to other countries. Accordingly, despite its imperfections, and despite the uncertainties regarding how things would evolve in 2021, it is important to identify and analyze the factors that contributed to the success of Israel’s vaccine rollout in its initial phase.

Selected factors contributing to Israel’s success

The specific factors contributing to Israel’s successful early rollout include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. 1.Israel’s small size, in terms of both area and population, its relatively young population, and its relatively warm weather in December 2020
  2. 2.Israel’s centralized national system of government (as opposed to a federal system of government)
  3. 3.Israel’s experience in, and infrastructure for, planning and implementing prompt responses to large-scale national emergencies
  4. 4.The organizational, IT and logistic capacities of Israel’s community-based healthcare providers (the four health plans), which are all large and national in scope
  5. 5.The availability of a cadre of well-trained, salaried, community-based nurses who are employed directly by the health plans
  6. 6.The tradition of effective cooperation between government, health plans, hospitals, and emergency care providers – particularly during national emergencies – and the frameworks for facilitating that cooperation
  7. 7.The existence of well-functioning frameworks for making decisions about vaccinations and support tools for assisting in the implementation of vaccination campaigns
  8. 8.The rapid mobilization of special government funding for vaccine purchase and distribution
  9. 9.Timely contracting for a large amount of vaccines relative to Israel’s population
  10. 10.The use of simple, clear and easily implementable criteria for determining who had priority for receiving vaccines in the early phases of the distribution process
  11. 11.A creative technical response that addressed the demanding cold storage requirements of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine
  12. 12.Well-tailored outreach efforts to encourage the population to sign up for vaccinations

These specific factors can be divided into three major groups of factors, as follows:

  1. A.Long-standing characteristics of Israel which are extrinsic to health care (items 1–3)
  2. B.Long-standing characteristics of the Israeli health care system (items 4–7)
  3. C.Specific actions taken as part of the COVID-19 vaccination effort (items 8–12)

We now provide additional information on each of the specific factors listed above, providing context and detail about the Israeli rollout not previously published in a comprehensive fashion. We also briefly cite examples of high-income countries in which those factors were not present, as vetted by country-specific experts who reviewed a draft of this article. We do so to demonstrate that many of these factors are neither trivial nor universal. We purposely do not present a comprehensive analysis of what have been the main influences on the speed of the rollout in any other country. Such comprehensive analyses are best carried out by experts writing about their own countries.

  1. A.Long-standing characteristics of Israel which are extrinsic to health
  1. 1.Israel’s small size, in terms of both area and population, its relatively young population, and its relatively mild weather in December 2020

Israel has a population of 9.3 million. As a result, the number of doses requiredFootnote6 was a small fraction of the overall global supply, giving Israel agility and maneuverability in its purchasing. Meanwhile, Israel’s small size (about the same as New Jersey)Footnote7 and highly urbanized population, minimized the transport and storage challenges associated with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (henceforth referred to as “the Pfizer vaccine”, for short). Inter alia, a single state-of-the-art medical warehouse sufficed to store the nation’s entire Pfizer vaccine reserve in the requisite ultra-low-temperature freezers.Footnote8 In addition, high population density increased the number of people who can easily access any particular community-based vaccination site – an important advantage with regard to the Pfizer vaccine.

Moreover, Israel’s population is relatively young (approximately 12% aged 65 or over) [6], reducing the amount of vaccine needed to rapidly vaccinate the bulk of the 60+ population.

And, with Israel being a small country geographically, the vast majority of aging and infirm Israelis apparently have a younger adult family member living in close geographic proximity,Footnote9 who can accompany them to a vaccination site, while providing moral support and transportation assistance. The relatively mild December in Israel in 2020 also made it easier for older people to get to vaccination sites.

These facilitating factors – Israel’s small size, a mild winter, and a relatively youthful population – did not exist in some high-income countries [8]. For example, the US has a population of over 300 million, greatly increasing the amount of vaccine needed by that country. Canada faced the challenges of a large geographic area and parts of the country in which the population density is low [9]; these created a need for more storage facilities, greater investment in transportation, and a need for many more vaccination sites.Footnote10 And several European countries have populations in which 20% or more are over age 65Footnote11 [10], meaning that vaccination coverage of the elderly would require a greater vaccine supply in terms of doses per population. Thus, many countries faced opening conditions – in terms of geography, population size, and age distribution – that were substantially more challenging than those faced by Israel.

  1. 2.Israel has a centralized national system of governmentFootnote12 (as opposed to a federal system of government)

Israel does not have states or regions which have independent decision-making authority on public health issues. While it does have active, and largely independent, local authorities and municipal governments, they play only a limited role in health care.Footnote13 As such, coordination of a public health response across different levels of government was not needed and this may have allowed the Israeli government more flexibility in designing its rollout. It also provided clarity in that the national government had the primary responsibility for the vaccination campaign, in terms of planning, financing, and implementation.Footnote14

In contrast, several high-income countries have federal systems, with significant implications for how public health efforts are organized. For example in the US, public health is administered and regulated primarily at the state level. On the other hand, it was the federal government that was responsible for promoting vaccine development, approving vaccines as safe and effective, procuring vaccines from pharmaceutical companies, and distributing them among, and to, states. This has led to some ambiguity regarding who is responsible and accountable for the success of the vaccination effort [11,12,13,14].

  1. 3.Israel has extensive experience in, and infrastructure for, planning and implementing prompt inter-sectoral responses to large-scale national emergencies.

Partly as a result of its challenging geo-political position, Israel has for many years invested substantially in preparing for large-scale emergencies, whether they be related to security, natural disasters, or health, based on an “all hazards” approach [15]. Inter-sectoral decision making bodies and implementation teams have been established, protocols have been developed, staff have been trained, and drills have been carried out. The scenarios for recent large-scale drills (pre-COVID-19) have included those in which large scale vaccination efforts had to be implemented. In Israel, the large community based health care providers – the health plans – are an integral part of national emergency preparedness drills. In addition, due to its security situation, Israel has amassed substantial real-world experience in responding to large-scale emergencies.

In the post-911 world, Israel is not the only country investing time, energy, and money in preparations for large-scale emergencies. But it is probably the case that few European and North American countries have as much experience as Israel does in responding to real-world emergencies and many of them apparently do not maintain surge capacity (relative to their size), to the extent that Israel does. Widespread public understanding that large-scale emergencies are not rare events may enhance the seriousness with which the public, professionals, and the government engage in emergency preparedness efforts [16]. Moreover, in many countries, community-based health care providers are not typically included in drills for large-scale emergencies.

In addition, Israel’s investment in emergency preparedness is supplemented by a culture of innovation and making rapid adjustments in response to changing circumstances.Footnote15

All of the above constituted important resources for Israel, as it planned and implemented the rollout of its vaccination campaign. It was quickly able to set up inter-sectoral frameworks for vaccine policy/program development and an inter-sectoral command center to oversee the implementation of the vaccination program.

  1. B.Long-standing characteristics of the Israeli health care system
  1. 4.The organizational, IT and logistic capacities of Israel’s community-based providers (Israel’s four health plans), which are all large and national in scopeFootnote16

Since 1995, Israel has had universal national health insurance coverage, financed primarily through income-related tax revenues. All permanent residents are free to choose from among Israel’s four large, competing, non-profit, health plans. These serve as Israel’s predominant, community-based health care providers. All four health plans are national in scope with primary care capabilities well-distributed across the country [1819]. They operate as well-run health care delivery systems based on national-regional-local hierarchies. All four health plans have a strong commitment to prevention as well as treatment, while most health plan members have long-standing relationships with, and a high level of trust in, their health plans [2021].

Moreover, all the health plans have well-developed electronic health recordsFootnote17 and strong capacities for electronic communications with their members [22]. Some of the health plans are also pioneers, internationally, in using their patient databases to carry out significant studies related to clinical care, epidemiology, and health policy [23,24,25,26].

The health plans are also have substantial experience in organizing and implementing nation-wide initiatives,Footnote18 large-scale mobilizations and emergency responses of various sorts [31]; this apparently contributed to their preparedness for the COVID-19 vaccination blitz. For example, the involvement of the health plans in periodic drills of responses to military bioterror exercises [32] have apparently honed their capacity to work with the IDF and other organizations in emergency situations. Experience of a complementary nature has been garnered over the past decade in the context of Israel’s National Program for Quality Indicators in Community Healthcare. That program monitors the performance of the health plans on approximately 70 quality measures; and each of the health plans undertakes large-scale, coordinated, organization-wide efforts to improve its performance on those measures [27].

In addition, the health plans’ annual influenza vaccination campaigns provided the health plans with experience in mobilizing staff for vaccinations as well as the rapid and efficient scheduling and processing of members for vaccinations. Moreover, in the months before the December 2020 COVID-19 vaccination campaign, the health plans carried out a particularly intensive flu vaccination campaign. This was motivated, in part, by concerns that the health system could get overwhelmed by the simultaneity of the COVD-19 pandemic and a major wave of influenza. As part of that influenza vaccination campaign, the health plans gained experience in renting out large public spaces as vaccination sites.

These long-standing capabilities have been vital to the central role that the health plans have played in the distribution and delivery of the Pfizer vaccine to their members. They were able to quickly distribute the vaccine to over 400 delivery points while meeting the challenging temperature and other logistic requirements of the Pfizer vaccine. The health plans were able to quickly and efficiently schedule hundreds of thousands of vaccination appointments for their members via call centers, apps, and organizational websites.

The health plans were able to quickly rent or otherwise access large facilities suitable for vaccinating large numbers of people.Footnote19 In some cases, the health plans outsourced part of their vaccination operations, building on substantial prior experience with outsourcing. They were able to staff the delivery effort in a quick and effective manner, operate the vaccine sites during extended work hours and throughout the week, with nurses, pharmacists, paramedics, administrators, and other health care professionals. Finally, the ongoing competition among the plans for members was an additional source of motivation (in addition to the dominant health protection objective) to excel in their vaccination efforts [33].

In contrast, most US and Canadian citizensFootnote20 are not enrolled in large-scale integrated delivery systems that have clear responsibility for their health and health care [2834], that can quickly organize and staff sites for large-scale vaccination efforts, and which can promptly address the logistical challenges involved in bringing together – in terms of time and place – the right mix of staff, patients, and vaccines.

The UK, despite having a single large-scale health care provider, the National Health Service, has also faced vaccine delivery challenges. One of those has been in clarity about which districts and which GPs were responsible for the health of each citizen.Footnote21 In the UK’s initial rollout, relative to the size of its population, and despite its larger geographic area, there were far fewer and often smaller sites for vaccine administration than in Israel. The UK relied on hospitals and relatively small, stand alone, or grouped, GP practices which seemed less suited than the one used by Israeli health plans to deliver a large-scale vaccination campaign [35].

In addition, in the UK, the vaccination strategy was implemented at the regional level (rather than by nationwide health plans). Gaps in organization and logistic capacities among regions may have compromised the efficiency and national consistency, of their vaccination campaigns [36].

  1. 5.The availability of a well-trained, salaried, cadre of community-based nurses who are directly employed by the health plans

In Israel, approximately one-third of the country’s nurses work in community settings, and about half of the community-based nurses work as salaried employees in Israel’s four non-profit health plans [37]. Many of those nurses have experience administering vaccinations, making it relatively easy for the plans to shift some of them from their regular tasks to the COVID-19 vaccination effort. These are skilled and well-trained professionals who could start vaccinating immediately.Footnote22 This was done despite Israel having a relatively low nurse to population ratio [38] and the prevalence of COVID-19 cases among nurses. It was accomplished via a large increase in nursing overtime hours and a partial deferral of other nursing tasks (e.g. monitoring of chronically ill patients). In addition, the health plans temporarily transferred some of the tasks which the nurses had been doing (e.g. phone calls to monitor the health of members who had become ill with COVID-19) to other health care professionals employed by the plans, such as social workers or speech therapists.Footnote23

Another key factor was that the scope of practice regulations for nurses authorizes them to independently assess which individuals meet the clinical criteria for vaccination, without requiring consultation with a physician or the physical presence of a physician.Footnote24

In addition to nurses employed by the health plans, supplemental staff were recruited from the Home Front Command of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), private companies, and others. Israel also acted quickly to change the regulations governing the scope of practice of medics and para-medics so that they too could administer vaccinations.

Countries with mandatory health insurance systems typically face greater difficulties in staffing vaccination efforts. In Germany, for example, despite having health plans (currently 103 social health insurance funds), these plans do not have readily available staff to administer the vaccines.Footnote25 This is because the majority of health workers in the ambulatory sector, including primary care providers, are self-employed contractors of the plans rather than their employees (to whom they could more easily assign tasks). As a result, many of the vaccinations are being done by independent GPs, other physicians, medical assistants, retired health professionals, and others on a voluntary basis. They are paid by federal states, the federal government (via the liquidity reserve of the Central Reallocation Pool) as well as private health insurances and municipalities (not by health plans) [3940].

  1. 6.The tradition of effective cooperation between government, the defense forces, health plans, hospitals, emergency care providers, and local authorities – particularly during national emergencies – and the frameworks for facilitating that cooperation

While the various components of the health system are well versed in how to compete (and bicker) among themselves in ordinary times, they are equally versed in how to cooperate in cases of national emergencies and also on high-priority national objectives in ordinary times. In the current vaccination campaign, the Home Front Command of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is playing several vital roles. It is responsible for ultra-cold storage of the vaccines in a central location, transporting those vaccines to a large number of vaccination sites, and also organizing vaccination sites in small localities, which serve the members of all health plans. Local authorities also played an important role by making some of their very large facilities available as vaccination sties.

A related advantage enjoyed by Israel is that many of the leaders of the health system, and indeed of the government, have known one another personally for years, and in many cases have even worked together in the past. This is due, inter alia, to the country’s small size and the close ties forged during service in the IDF (particularly as officers in the IDF Medical Corps). These prior relationships facilitate communication and cooperation during national emergencies [41].

  1. 7.The existence of well-functioning frameworks for making decisions about vaccinations and support tools for assisting in the implementation of vaccination campaignsFootnote26

Israel has a well-established national Epidemic Management Team (EMT) and a well-established National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) [42]. In the last quarter of 2020, the MOH general director appointed a special committee (“the COVID-19 vaccine prioritization committee”), comprised of members of those two long-standing committees, which then held regular (Zoom) meetings several times a week, and provided recommendations to the MoH.

In addition, Israel is one of the few countries that have a full population-based childhood immunization registry that includes all of the country’s children. Childhood vaccines are provided in Israel free of charge in all well-baby clinics in the country and doses are registered in a web-based registry [43]. Based on the experience from previous mass vaccination campaigns in Israel [44], the platform of the national registry was quickly adjusted and adapted to the current COVID-19 vaccine campaign. Notably residents in Israel all have a single unique identifier (ID) used in all health care facilities and allowing for ongoing timely data assembly on vaccine doses and number of vaccinees. The registry also allows follow up and assessment of post vaccination adverse events as well as providing real-world vaccine effectiveness data, i.e., “phase 4,” or post-marketing, data.

  1. C.Specific actions taken as part of the COVID-19 vaccination effort
  1. 8.The rapid mobilization of special government funding for vaccine purchase and distribution

By mid-2020, senior Israeli policymakers, civil servants, and professionals realized that it was important for Israel to secure an adequate volume of vaccines as early as possible and promote their distribution and delivery. There was a consensus that this was important for Israel’s public health, economy, and perhaps for its security as well. There was also an early understanding that effective distribution and delivery would impose substantial additional costs on health care providers. Accordingly, the Ministry of Finance, in coordination with Israel’s political leadership, set aside substantial funds for vaccine acquisition, with an understanding that additional resources would have to be provided to support distribution and delivery.

Like Israel, many other high-income countries invested heavily in contracting with the pharmaceutical companies for future vaccine acquisition. Israel was also not alone in the allocation of special government funds to support vaccine delivery. However, in other countries such as the UK, the amount of such government support appears to have been limited. For example, in England many GP practices have reported that they are unable to participate in the vaccination program because the resources given to them (beyond the vaccine itself) were insufficient [45].

  1. 9.Timely contracting for a large amount of vaccines relative to Israel’s population

Over the course of 2020, Israel contracted with several of the pharmaceutical companies at the forefront of vaccine development.Footnote27 Not knowing which vaccines would prove to be effective, and when they would get regulatory authorizations, Israel distributed its risks by entering into advanced purchasing agreements (typically contingent on regulatory authorization) for more vaccine doses than it was projected to need.Footnote28

Details of these agreements, and of the deliberations and negotiations that preceded them, are not publicly available. However, it is likely that Israel’s ability to lock-in an early and adequate supply of vaccines was due to the combination of:

  • Political leadership, including the active personal involvement of the prime minister,
  • A willingness to pay premium (i.e. higher) prices [46],
  • A highly professional purchasing division within the Ministry of Health [28], and
  • An understanding on the part of the pharmaceutical companies that Israel has an unusually strong capacity to showcase the feasibility, and assess the impact of, a rapid rollout.

This last point may have been due, in part, to some pharma executives having had prior professional connections with Israel [4748].

This understanding of Israel’s potential as a lab and a showcase apparently also contributed to the collaboration agreement between Israel’s MOH and Pfizer (signed in early January), between Israel’s MOH and Pfizer, regarding the collection, sharing, and analysis of aggregate, real-world epidemiological data which can be used to assess when herd immunity is achieved [4950]. .This agreement appears to have played a role in expanding the supply of vaccines to Israel in January and beyond.

Israel secured a relatively large early supply of vaccines without having had produced any of those vaccines domestically. While Israel is working on a vaccine of its own, it was still in the testing stage at the end of 2020, so Israel’s early supply was fully imported.

Many (though not all) high-income countries, also entered into advanced purchasing contracts with multiple pharmaceutical companies prior to the regulatory authorizations of the vaccines. Some countries contracted for a quantity of vaccines well in excess of their populations [51]. At the same time, the “real-world epidemiological evidence collaboration agreement” between Pfizer and Israel appears to be somewhat unique.

Other aspects of the situation were different for most European countries. Procurement and purchase is done in coordination with the European Commission, in order to ensure a relatively similar share of vaccines among all countries [52]. Individual countries are not free to purchase as much vaccines as they want, even if they have sufficient funds to pay premium prices.

Moreover, in most countries, by the end of 2020, only a very small part of the contracted supply of vaccines had been delivered by pharmaceutical companies to governments. While exact data on this are unavailable, it appears that as of the FDA’s December 11 emergency use authorization of the Pfizer vaccine, the per capita vaccine supply was substantially greater in Israel than in most – if not all – other countries. Israel was also among the first countries to piggy-back onto the FDA’s authorization of the Pfizer vaccine with an authorization of its own.

  1. 10.The use of simple, broad, clear and easily implementable criteria for determining who had priority for receiving vaccines in the early phases of the distribution process

The initial target groups for vaccination in Israel were people aged 60 and over, nursing home residents, other people at very high risk due to serious specific medical conditions (mostly those related to compromised respiratory systems), and front-line health care workers. Each of these groups were well-defined. Moreover, the health plans, with their state-of-the-art EHRs were well-equipped to identify and reach out to members aged 60 or over and younger members with relevant medical conditions. Similarly, the Magen David Adom personnel had no problem identifying and accessing all nursing home residents, while hospitals and health plans could readily identify and contact the relevant employees and contracted workers. Together, these four groups constituted a relatively large number of people and a very high proportion of those most at risk of serious illness or death from COVID-19.

The primary objective of the initial prioritization scheme was to reduce mortality and severe illness related to CVOD-19, with special attention to the most vulnerable population groups. There was also an understanding that once the at-risk population is vaccinated, it will be easier to gradually open up the economy, without incurring major public health risks. Another objective of the prioritization was to ensure that the health care system not be overwhelmed, and this was advanced both by vaccinating the at-risk population and by vaccinating health care workers.

Before deciding to prioritize the groups at the greatest health risk, the relevant committee considered an alternative strategy – prioritizing those groups most involved in transmitting the disease. After deliberating the two strategies prioritization of those at greatest health risk emerged as the consensus. Primarily, this was due to the understanding that this would have the greatest contribution to population health. In addition, at the time there was a great deal of uncertainty about how many doses would be available for the initial rollout phase, and concern that there would not be enough to cover the relatively large groups involved in transmitting the disease.

Many other countries also have relatively clear and simple prioritization criteria, but due to limitations in the per capita vaccine supply their initial rollouts have focused on relatively narrow population segments, e.g. Austria [53], Denmark [54], and Spain [5556].

In the US the situation is more complex, as the CDC recommendations have called for “frontline essential workers” to be included in phase 1 of vaccination campaigns. It is clearly more difficult to determine which individuals are part of this group than it is to determine who is in a given age group.

  1. 11.A creative technical response to the demanding cold storage requirements of the Pfizer vaccine

According to Pfizer’s initial technical specifications, once the vaccine vials were removed from the ultra-low-temperature freezers there were to be transported to vaccination sites only in large trays containing 195 vials, enough for approximately 1000 doses. The professionals involved quickly realized that this requirement greatly limited the ability to carry out vaccinations in nursing homes, smaller localities, and other settings where the number of people in the top priority groups was well below 1000 [57]. With approval from Pfizer, “Israeli teams repacked the large ultra-frozen pallets into insulated boxes the size of small pizzas, allowing for distribution in smaller numbers and at more remote sites” [58]. This involved workers operating in very low-temperature refrigerators in which they did the repackaging [59].

Appendix presents additional information on the cold chain preservation efforts in Israel.

  1. 12.Well-tailored outreach efforts to encourage the population to sign up for vaccinations

A variety of steps were undertaken in Israel to promote public interest in vaccination [2160]. One key step was to wait until the highly respected US FDA had completed its rigorous review process before launching the vaccination campaign. The MOH, the health plans, and the hospitals then built on the FDA’s recognition of the vaccine as safe and effective, to launch a multi-pronged educational campaign to provide information, allay fears, and overcome hesitancy. The campaign made use of the mass media, social media, organizational websites, and more. An important part of this effort involved monitoring social media for anti-vax messages and addressing them head-on.

Another important step, taken by the health plans, was to create a number of different ways in which individuals could schedule a vaccination. These included by phone to a health plan call center, by computer via the health plan web site, or by mobile phone via a health plan app. In the initial days of the campaign there were technical difficulties in using these vehicles, which were overwhelmed by the surge in demand. However, these were subsequently sorted out and were widely used. This was facilitated by the relatively high proportion of Israelis who, even before the pandemic, had enrolled in their health plans’ secure portals for communicating personal information. These secure connections are also used to monitor and communicate side effects of the vaccine, providing individuals with a greater sense of security and thereby helping overcome vaccine hesitancy.

In addition, the mass media, in coordination with organizations involved in implementing the vaccine campaign, have provided daily updated on the number of Israelis vaccinated, accompanied by video clips and photos of large numbers of people getting vaccinated. These data and visuals may be providing reassurance to persons who might otherwise be hesitant to get vaccinated [61]. The thinking then becomes, “if so many Israelis are queueing up to get vaccinated voluntarily, then this is probably a good thing for me as well”. In addition, Israel’s position as the country with the most per capita doses administered has become a source of national pride, further encouraging Israelis to want to be part of this effort.

In addition, in Israel, the endorsements of cultural and intellectual leaders have been important in encouraging the general population to sign up for vaccinations. Key religious figures can make an important contribution to vaccine uptake rates among Ultra-Orthodox (Haredi) Jews and very devout Moslems. Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has invested substantial effort in recruiting the support of these religious leaders. Among the Haredi population, this bore fruit already in the first week of the vaccination campaign.

Among the Arab population, as of the end of 2020, additional outreach efforts were clearly needed. As indicated by Professor Nihaya Daoud, these should include opening additional vaccinations sites in Arab localities, operating mobile vaccination units that can reach small Arab villages, doing more to tailor the messaging and the media to the Arab population, having the health plans proactively schedule appointments by reaching out to Israel’s Arab citizens [6263].

The overall positive response in late December of persons age 60 and over to the opportunity to get vaccinated probably also reflected a strong and widespread desire to end their exposure to the substantial health and economic risks associated with the nearly year-long pandemic, as well as the limitations on day-to-day living imposed by the pandemic. It also probably reflects a reasonably high degree of trust in the safety and efficacy of the vaccines and the vaccination process. This, in turn, suggests that – at least on these matters – persons over 60 were trusting the government and other health system actors to act responsibly and in the public interest.

As of this writing, it is too soon to know how other countries will promote willingness in getting vaccinated among the general public, as many of them are just beginning to expand their vaccination campaigns beyond a narrowly defined target groups. Interestingly, in the UK people are individually invited to come in for a vaccination [64], rather than the Israeli approach where everyone meeting broad criteria has the opportunity to sign-up for a vaccination via health plan call centers, web sites, and apps. This can be seen as the difference between a pull approach and a push approach.

Israel’s facilitating factors – an integrated view

Most of the factors discussed above are not unique to Israel. Perhaps the factor most specific to Israel is factor #4 – the organizational, IT and logistic capacities of Israel’s four large, national, health plans. These health plans are integrated health care systems which serve as the country’s predominant community-based health care providers. In very few other countries is the entire population enrolled in similarly effective delivery systems.

Aside from that, Israel’s relative success in the early rollout phase appears to be due to having a somewhat unique combination of factors (many of which, when taken individually, can be found in other countries) and taking advantage of potential synergies among those factors.

As Weintraub and colleagues have pointed out in a recent Health Affairs article, “The historical record suggests that to have a widely immunized population, leaders must invest in evidence-based vaccine delivery strategies that generate demand, allocate and distribute vaccines, and verify coverage” [65].

In Israel, the early availability of a relatively large per capita vaccine supply made it possible for Israel to give early priority to a large and clearly defined population group – persons over age 60. But administering vaccinations to roughly 10% of the population within 2 weeks required much more than having enough vaccine doses; it also required efficiently bringing together, at appropriate sites, vaccines, professionals to administer the vaccines, and people to receive those vaccines. In doing so, Israel built upon its emergency preparedness, inter-sectoral cooperation, and the organizational and technological capacities of the health plans. Similarly, it required a capacity to rapidly and flexibly mobilize a large number of health care professionals and to set up a sufficient number of sites which were organized for efficient throughput. The number and geographic distribution of vaccination sites was greatly enhanced by the creative technical response permitting the splitting-up of the large vaccination trays. Finally, to promote the interest of the population in getting vaccinated promptly, Israel built upon the long-standing trust relationships between individuals and their health plans by promoting a bandwagon effect and launching targeted outreach efforts.

Thus, in Israel, numerous facilitating factors were weaved together to enable it to effectively address the range of challenges noted by Weintraub.

Concluding remarks

This analysis identified and discussed 12 factors which contributed to Israel’s relative rapid initial rollout of COVID-19 vaccinations. While many of these facilitating factors are not unique to Israel, there were important synergies among the factors that facilitated Israel’s initial rollout.

The analysis presented here is limited in several significant ways. The list of factors presented is intended to be illustrative, rather than comprehensive. Moreover, the discussions of some of the factors in the list just begin to scratch the surface on important issues. For example, it would be valuable to delve further into the factors that contributed to Israel’s ability to secure an early and adequate vaccine supply, and explore which of those factors were the dominant ones.

The analysis identified several features of Israeli health care which can lay the groundwork for a successful early rollout, without fully explaining how their potential was realized. For example, it is one thing to indicate that the health plans’ organizational and IT capacities were important assets; it is another to tell the fuller story of how these assets were marshalled effectively. Similarly, there is an important story to be told about how Israel built on an existing general receptivity to vaccines through a series of concrete and well-timed actions to address vaccine hesitancy and anti-vaxxer activity specific to the rapidly-developed and untraditional COVID-19 vaccines.

The analysis highlighted various features of Israeli health care that have made it a particularly good fit for the Pfizer vaccine, with its demanding temperature and transport requirements. Future research might consider whether Israel’s rollout would have been so much quicker than those of other countries if the first vaccine to receive FDA emergency use authorization had been that of Moderna or AstraZeneca, as the extreme cold storage requirements of the Pfizer vaccine were a major hurdle to rapid distribution in many countries.

Finally, our analysis ends at December 31, 2020. That year has ended, but the challenges countries face in vaccinating their populations continue. As of this writing, it is by no means clear whether, and to what extent, Israel will be able to sustain its early success in deploying COVID-19 vaccines. Much will depend on the extent to which Israel continues to build on its long-standing strengths and continues to adopt successful policies that are specific to the COVID-19 vaccination challenge.

Israel, like other countries, has faced, and will continue to face, numerous ethical issues in its vaccination campaign. Some, such as the priority to be given to undocumented workers, it has in common with other countries. Others, such as the nature and scope of assistance to be given to the Palestinian Authority, are unique to Israel. In the weeks and months ahead, it will be important for these issues to be discussed seriously – in the Knesset, in the news media, and in academic articles.

The rollout has, of course, continued to evolve beyond the end of 2020. In the process of that evolution, it has been possible to extend immunization to additional groups, such as teachers and persons under age 60, and significantly increase the percentage of the population covered (including among the Ultra-Orthodox and Israeli Arabs). New issues have arisen, including the questions of how to vaccinate the home-bound, and what priority should be given to prisoners. In the future, it will be important to supplement this analysis of the rollout’s initial phase with analyses of how it evolves in 2021.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Notes

  1. 1.

    The formal name of the vaccine is: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2 (brand name “Comirnaty”)

  2. 2.

    Personal communication, Boaz Lev, January 2021.

  3. 3.

    At this stage, the vaccine has been authorized for use by people aged 16 and over. There is no prohibition against vaccinating a pregnant woman or a woman planning a pregnancy. A person with an acute illness, including a fever of 38 degrees Celsius or above, will not be vaccinated until they have recovered from that illness. According to current guidelines, the following are not authorized to receive the vaccine: people under age 16, people with a history of severe allergic reaction (who should contact the warehouse nurse to find out if they can be vaccinated), and people who were confirmed as having been ill with COVID-19.

  4. 4.

    Israel did not face the issue, present in some other countries, of large numbers of healthcare workers being on vacation during the week between Christmas and New Year’s Day.

  5. 5.

    Foreign workers carrying for frail elderly living at home or in nursing homes were included among the health care workers who were vaccinated in the first phase of the rollout.

  6. 6.

    Israel’s vaccination program covers all persons covered by Israel’s National Health Insurance Law as well as additional groups, such as soldiers (who are entitled to health care via the IDF) and prisoners (who are entitled to health care via the Prisons Law). Undocumented migrant workers are not covered.

    The Palestinian Authority is responsible for the health and health care of Palestinian residents of Gaza and the West Bank. This includes responsibility for providing vaccinations against COVID-19. Thus, in general, they are not included as part of Israel’s vaccination program. In contrast, Palestinian workers legally residing in Israel by virtue of a residence permit granted to them as part of a family reunification procedure, as they are covered by the NHI.

  7. 7.

    We recognize that several European countries have areas similar to that of Israel. The intention here is to distinguish this characteristics of Israel’s area primarily from those of the US, China, Canada and other large-area countries.

  8. 8.

    To some extent, these freezers were on hand prior to the pandemic. Others were purchased during 2020 in preparation for the expected need to store large quantities of the Pfizer vaccine.

  9. 9.

    According to the 2009 Social Survey carried out by Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, 79% of the elderly in Israel met at least once a week with a family member who does not live with them in the same household [7]. The comparable figure in the 2019 Social Survey was 77%.

  10. 10.

    Confirmed by Greg Marchildon, personal communication, January 2021.

  11. 11.

    These include 23% in Italy, 22% in Germany, and 20% in France

  12. 12.

    Sometimes referred to as a unitary system of government

  13. 13.

    Nonetheless, some of these local authorities made an important contribution to the vaccination campaign by making large municipal facilities available as vaccination sites.

  14. 14.

    Of course, even with a single level of government involved, there were issues to be resolved about the distribution of responsibility between various agencies of the national government, such as the Ministry of Health, the IDF, the Knesset, the Prime Minister, and the Cabinet. In the case of the vaccine campaign, these issues seem to have been resolved effectively. This has not been the case regarding other aspects of the pandemic response.

  15. 15.

    This has been touted as one of the main factors that have contributed to Israel’s Startup Nation status [17].

  16. 16.

    The health plans, which are financed primarily by government via a capitation formula, are responsible for ensuring that their members receive all needed services included in a government-determined benefits package.

  17. 17.

    An individual’s electronic health record can be accessed by all physicians working with the individual’s health plan, thereby promoting continuity of care. Moreover, if that individual is hospitalized, the hospital can also access key elements of his/her EHR (such as underlying health conditions and relevant community-based treatments), the individual’s primary care physician is automatically notified about the hospitalization, and key data about the care in the hospital are shared with the health plan electronically.

  18. 18.

    This is true for efforts to improve ongoing care, such as nation-wide, collaborative systems for monitoring and improving quality [2728]. It is also true for efforts to address new challenges, such as the rise in obesity [29] and efforts to arrange health insurance for undocumented migrants [30].

  19. 19.

    In the early days of the vaccination campaign, a large proportion of the vaccinations took place in large, rented facilities. Once Israel received approval from Pfizer to split up the large trays of vaccine vials, an increasing proportion of the vaccinations shifted to community-based clinics.

  20. 20.

    While Canada has a national health insurance system, most of its hospitals and physicians operate independently, rather than as part of large, integrated systems of care.

  21. 21.

    The information presented in this paragraph has been confirmed by Fiona Sim, personal communication, January 2021.

  22. 22.

    Similarly, in hospitals, nurses are salaried employees and they too were rapidly mobilized for the vaccination campaign.

  23. 23.

    David Mossinson, personal communication, January 2021.

  24. 24.

    At the same time, individuals with certain sensitivities were referred by the nurses to physicians for further evaluation.

  25. 25.

    The information presented in this paragraph has been confirmed by Juiane Winkelman, via personal communication, 2021.

  26. 26.

    The authors are indebted to Chen Stein-Zamir for contributing this section of the article.

  27. 27.

    The Israeli government has promised the pharmaceutical companies (Pfizer and Moderna), the health plans, and the public that the vaccines for COVID-19 will be included within purview of the Insurance for Victims of Vaccines Law, 1989. This means that the government will compensate any individuals whose health was harmed as a result of receiving the vaccine.

  28. 28.

    Israel did not make a separate acquisition of vaccines for the IDF. The vaccines acquired are being used for civilians and military (as well as police) personnel in an integrated fashion. Soldiers were not listed as a distinct target population for the first phase of the vaccine rollout.

Abbreviations

CBS:
Central Bureau of Statistics
IDF:
Israel Defense Forces
IJHPR:
Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
MDA:
Magen David Adom
MOH:
Ministry of Health
POU:
Point of use
UK:
United Kingdom

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Acknowledgements

The manuscript benefitted from comments received on earlier drafts from Sarah Dine, Gary Freed, Sherry Glied, Calanit Kaye, Boaz Lev, Greg Marchildon, Martin McKee, Laura Rosen, Fiona Sim, Chen Stein-Zamir, and Shlomo Vinker. It also benefited from discussions with Bruria Adini, Bruce Landon, Daniel Padon, Robert Schwartz, and Eyal Schwartzberg. A special thank you to Eyal Schwartzberg for his assistance in writing the appendix about cold chain preservation and to Chen Stein-Zamir for contributing the section on pre-existing vaccination support tools and decisionmaking frameworks.

Another special thank you goes to Ruth Waitzberg’s colleagues in the network of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies for promptly sharing information on the vaccine rollouts in their countries: Gemma Williams (UK) and Juliane Winkelmann (Germany).

Several excellent newspaper and magazine articles have been published about the factors that contributed to Israel’s successful vaccination rollout. As long-term students of the Israeli health system we were familiar with many of the factors they noted, but those journalistic pieces also pointed out issues which had not been on our radar screen before we read them. The relevant references for those are noted, in standard fashion, in the main text.

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Contributions

All three authors contributed substantially to the preparation of this editorial. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Authors’ information

Avi Israeli is the Dr. Julien Rozan Professor of Family Medicine and Health Care at the Hebrew University – Hadassah Faculty of Medicine; Director of the Department of Health Policy, Health Care Management and Health Economics, Hebrew University – Hadassah Braun School of Public Health & Community Medicine; Chief Scientist of the Ministry of Health; and co-editor of the IJHPR.

Bruce Rosen is Director of the Smokler Center for Health Policy Research and Director of the Systems Research Group at the Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute, as well as co-editor of the IJHPR. He is also an adjunct associate professor at the Hebrew University’s Paul Baerwald School of Social Work and Social Welfare.

Ruth Waitzberg is a research scholar at the Smokler Center for Health Policy Research of the Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute, a Research Fellow at the Department of Health Care Management, Faculty of Economics & Management, Technical University Berlin, Germany, and an assistant editor of the IJHPR.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bruce Rosen.

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Competing interests

The authors of this article are IJHPR editors. Accordingly, they were not involved in the editorial side of the review process. Instead, the review process was managed by the IJHPR’s associate editor, who is not an author of this article.

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Appendix

Appendix

Transport and cold storage in Israel of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines

The Pfizer vaccines are brought to Israel via air transport in specially designed, temperature-controlled containers/ utilizing dry ice to maintain the recommended storage temperature conditions of − 70 °C. The thermal shippers are then transported by trucks from the airport to a state-of-the-art medical warehouse operated by S.L.E, where they are stored in ultra-low-temperature freezers. From the S.L.E warehouses, vaccines are towed and transported in good distribution practice (GDP) trucks to hospitals, clinics, designated immunization centers, and additional points of use (POUs). GDP conditions include temperature validated containers and monitored, temperature-controlled, trucks with GPS enabled devices. The vaccines arrive to the point of vaccination in trays containing 195 vials (in certain circumstances this amount may be reduced according to clinical/logistic needs). After towing, the vaccines expire in 5 days, when refrigerated at temperatures of 2–8 °C.

At the vaccination point, the vaccines are transferred from the validated container and stored in temperature controlled validated refrigerators to maintain 2–8 °C. The refrigerators are monitored constantly and are connected to a central alert system that tracks and records deviations in the storage temperature. Once the vials have been removed from these refrigerators, they are stable for 2 h at room temperature. For preparation of vaccine the vials are reconstituted with normal saline (0.9%NaCl); at point they must be used within 6 h.

In early phase, when providers had to work with platters of 95 vials, they used mostly large public spaces which can accommodate many people (e.g. The Arena in Jerusalem). Once a method was developed to split up the platters, in agreement with Pfizer, the vaccination activity increasingly took place in the large number of community clinics that are spread throughout Israel.

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警逮雙和醫院傷人確診病患 侯友宜:讓警都有疫苗打

2021/5/31 20:15(5/31 20:36 更新)
新北市雙和醫院31日發生隔離治療的確診病患持刀攻擊3名護理師案,市長侯友宜(左)前往探視及慰問傷者,表達關懷與不捨。(新北市府提供)中央社記者王鴻國傳真 110年5月31日
新北市雙和醫院31日發生隔離治療的確診病患持刀攻擊3名護理師案,市長侯友宜(左)前往探視及慰問傷者,表達關懷與不捨。(新北市府提供)中央社記者王鴻國傳真 110年5月31日

(中央社記者王鴻國新北31日電)新北市雙和醫院今天發生隔離治療的確診病患持刀攻擊3名護理師案件。市長侯友宜得知後前往探視傷者並對警方冒染疫風險逮人表示感動,並承諾一定要讓員警都有疫苗打。

62歲洪姓武漢肺炎(2019冠狀病毒疾病,COVID-19 )確診病患,收治在雙和醫院11樓負壓隔離病房,今天上午7時許竟持刀攻擊3名護理師,造成3人手部及腹部等多處刀傷送醫。

員警獲報後穿著隔離衣前往處理,順利將洪男制伏上銬,但使得執勤員警有染疫風險。

雙和醫院表示,3名護理人員遭病人持刀劃傷後,警衛及員警迅速制伏病人。院方也通報衛生主管機關協助病人後續安置事宜。受傷的同仁生命徵象皆穩定。院方除積極進行同仁治療外,也已加強員工及家屬心理關懷與醫院安全管理機制。

侯友宜得知後也趕到醫院探視及慰問受傷護理人員,除對傷者表達關懷與不捨外,也下令新北警方徹查此案,並全力保護醫護人員安全。

由於中和分局偵查隊日前有同仁確診,造成同仁均須隔離,現由新北市刑警大隊接管,市刑大大隊長黃壬聰表示,市警局長黃宗仁已下令各分局加強醫療院所巡邏及聯繫,以強化相關安全措施。

中和分局表示,6名員警獲報同趕赴醫院,其中2員警冒染疫風險壓制確診病患,各予記功1次,其餘協勤同仁各予嘉獎1次。由於中和交通分隊與偵查隊同仁染疫,全隊都篩檢並自我隔離。相關勤業務由交通大隊與刑大接管,不會讓交通治安出現空窗期。

侯友宜表示,他也是警察出身,能理解警察的辛苦,尤其今天出現失控的確診者,警察在第一時間到場,冒著生命危險去制伏,他要求警局給警察弟兄應有的鼓勵及支持,並協助執勤員警篩檢。

侯友宜表示,請警察弟兄放心,施打疫苗一定會在優先順序裡面,要讓第一線服務的警力一定都可以打得到疫苗,警察弟兄這段時間真的辛苦了。(編輯:李錫璋)1100531

新北市雙和醫院31日發生隔離治療的確診病患持刀攻擊3名護理師案,市長侯友宜(左)前往探視及慰問受傷護理人員,除對傷者表達關懷與不捨外,也下令新北警方徹查此案,全力保護醫護人員安全。(新北市府提供)中央社記者王鴻國傳真 110年5月31日
新北市雙和醫院31日發生隔離治療的確診病患持刀攻擊3名護理師案,市長侯友宜(左)前往探視及慰問受傷護理人員,除對傷者表達關懷與不捨外,也下令新北警方徹查此案,全力保護醫護人員安全。(新北市府提供)中央社記者王鴻國傳真 110年5月31日

德國疫苗接種進度加快 下一目標青少年

2021/5/31 19:15(5/31 21:31 更新)
柏林利用廢棄不用的泰格爾機場(Tegel airport)航廈成立大型接種中心,每天可接受4000位民眾施打疫苗。中央社記者林育立柏林攝 110年5月31日
柏林利用廢棄不用的泰格爾機場(Tegel airport)航廈成立大型接種中心,每天可接受4000位民眾施打疫苗。中央社記者林育立柏林攝 110年5月31日

(中央社記者林育立柏林31日專電)德國新型冠狀病毒疫苗的接種進度最近有加快趨勢,每天接種的人數經常超過100萬人,為早日終結疫情,德國接下來的目標是將接種族群擴大到青少年。

相較於英國、以色列和美國,歐盟各國2019年冠狀病毒疾病(COVID-19)疫苗的接種進度原本相對緩慢,不過最近2個月速度明顯加快,已接種第一劑的人口平均超過3成,德國達4成。

德國衛生部長史巴恩(Jens Spahn)昨天表示,根據民調,全國的成年人口有7成有意接種,照目前進度,其中9成在7月中前可完成第一劑的接種。

德國接種作業多管齊下,民眾可選擇遍布全國的400多座大型接種中心及基層診所進行免費接種,大企業員工也可由企業雇用的醫師施打疫苗。最近每天接種的人數經常超過100萬人,超過總人口的1%。

根據政府規劃的接種優先順序,目前以染疫風險高的老年人、醫護人員、警消、大眾運輸從業人員為主要接種對象。隨著疫苗交貨量增加,6月7日起全國人民只要想接種都可登記。

歐盟國家施打的疫苗由歐盟統一採購,目前共有4款疫苗獲歐盟藥品管理局(EMA)批准上市,分別是BioNTech/輝瑞(Pfizer)、阿斯特捷利康(AstraZeneca)、莫德納(Moderna)和嬌生集團(Johnson & Johnson)的疫苗,俄羅斯和中國的疫苗還在審查當中。

歐盟的目標是7月底以前,至少7成成年人完成第一劑的接種。

為邁向群體免疫,早日終結疫情,歐盟國家的下一目標是青少年。繼美國和加拿大後,歐盟藥管局日前已批准將BioNTech/輝瑞的疫苗接種族群擴大到12至15歲的青少年。

主管教育的德國聯邦教育及研究部部長卡爾利茨克(Anja Karliczek)表示,政府目標是暑假結束後有足夠的疫苗,所有想接種的學生都能接種,讓新的學年恢復正常上課。(編輯:林憬屏)1100531

高市3天打完疫苗 陳其邁:另2.7萬劑陸續到貨

2021/5/31 19:13(5/31 19:21 更新)
高雄市31日新增1例武漢肺炎(2019冠狀病毒疾病,COVID-19)本土病例,市府下午召開防疫會議,市長陳其邁會後主持防疫記者會指出,152處市場已經展開大清消,6月1日起將結合身分證分流採買。(高雄市新聞局提供)中央社記者侯文婷傳真 110年5月31日
高雄市31日新增1例武漢肺炎(2019冠狀病毒疾病,COVID-19)本土病例,市府下午召開防疫會議,市長陳其邁會後主持防疫記者會指出,152處市場已經展開大清消,6月1日起將結合身分證分流採買。(高雄市新聞局提供)中央社記者侯文婷傳真 110年5月31日

(中央社記者侯文婷高雄31日電)靠事前協調施打點及接種順序,高雄市長陳其邁表示,高雄在3天內打完2.1 萬劑疫苗,已和衛福部聯絡,新分配的2.7萬劑疫苗今天至明天陸續到貨,籲接種對象配合遵守施打順序。

中央流行疫情指揮中心今天宣布,高雄新增1例武漢肺炎(2019冠狀病毒疾病,COVID-19)本土病例。高雄市政府下午召開防疫會議,陳其邁會後主持防疫記者會,說明確診者足跡及疫情動態。

透過事前協調施打點及接種順序,陳其邁表示,從5月28日至30日晚間6時止,高雄市2.1萬劑疫苗已經完成施打,主要提供專責醫院人員、防疫計程車及警消等防疫人員優先接種。

陳其邁說,昨天和衛福部長陳時中通電話,高雄新分配的2.7萬劑今天下午到第一批,第二批也會在明天抵達,呼籲接種對象配合遵守施打順序。

另外,高雄市衛生局今天啟用鳳山、鳳二、三民、三民二、前鎮、小港、大寮、鼓山、左營及楠梓等10區衛生所社區快篩站,預約情形踴躍,併同原來23間採檢醫院,全市有33處快篩站,提醒符合資格民眾預約篩檢並攜帶健保卡。

陳其邁說,6月11日再增加10站,地點、人員跟通報系統都準備好,針對5月1日後有雙北旅遊史且出現症狀者、「串門子海鮮串燒」群聚案相關者或5月12日後一週2次、兩週3次有呼吸道症狀者等特定高風險族群、醫護跟長照機構進行快篩。

針對菜市場分流,陳其邁表示,高市152處市場已經展開大清消,預計今天完成,明天起將結合身分證分流採買,結合上千名人員配合警力,加強各大市場宣導與稽查,呼籲市場攤販及消費者配戴口罩、落實實聯制並配合人流管制,否則將要求停業。

高雄市經濟發展局長廖泰翔表示,由於分流措施昨天剛宣布,未來3日會先採取勸導,但市場管理上會強力要求人流管制及實聯制。(編輯:謝雅竹)1100531

府:一名憲兵染疫 與正副總統無接觸史

2021/5/31 18:54(5/31 19:30 更新)
總統府31日說,憲兵211營有一名憲兵確診,該憲兵23日至25日擔任府一號門正哨衛兵,但期間並沒有進入總統府主建築物內。(中央社檔案照片)
總統府31日說,憲兵211營有一名憲兵確診,該憲兵23日至25日擔任府一號門正哨衛兵,但期間並沒有進入總統府主建築物內。(中央社檔案照片)

(中央社記者葉素萍台北31日電)總統府今天說,憲兵211營有一人確診,該憲兵23日至25日擔任府一號門正哨衛兵,但期間並沒有進入總統府主建築物內,也沒與府內員工有長時間的近距離接觸,和總統、副總統也沒有任何接觸史,總統、副總統健康無虞。

總統府發言人張惇涵晚間表示,憲兵211營有一名憲兵於5月29日確診,是中央流行疫情指揮中心公布的確診案例。

他說,經查,這名憲兵於5月23日至5月25日擔任總統府一號門正哨衛兵,但期間並沒有進入總統府主建築物內,也沒有與總統府員工有長時間的近距離接觸,和總統、副總統也沒有任何接觸史,總統、副總統健康無虞,請國人放心。

張惇涵表示,該名憲兵於5月26日休假後,因為身體不適前往篩檢,於5月29日確診,目前正在醫療院所安置治療照顧中。而與這名憲兵同寢室的親密接觸者有2人,目前沒有身體不適症狀,已經完成篩檢,均為陰性,且都已實施隔離。

張惇涵表示,憲兵211營已經於5月29日針對全營活動區域實施全面清消作業,同時,嚴格管制分流動線、要求官兵自我健康偵測,徹底落實所有官士兵防疫措施。(編輯:謝佳珍)1100531

COMPUTEX線上展視訊論壇齊發 聚焦7大議題

2021/5/29 11:14

(中央社記者鍾榮峰台北29日電)台北國際電腦展(COMPUTEX 2021)線上展31日起登場,外貿協會與台北市電腦公會分進合擊舉辦線上展並規劃線上專館專區,視訊論壇也邀請全球及台灣大廠展望科技和資通訊議題。

包括人工智慧物聯網、電動車、5G、高效能運算、數位醫療、大數據分析、資安新創等7大議題,將成為今年COMPUTEX展期的關注焦點。

受COVID-19疫情影響,今年台北國際電腦展採取線上展形式,從5月31日持續至6月30日,主辦單位之一外貿協會指出,線上展覽平台COMPUTEXVirtual,運用AI人工智慧與自動化技術,創建數位用戶旅程,提供個人化的互動觀展體驗,讓參觀者即時且高效取得國內外大廠的最新產品資訊。

線上展也成立「Garage+ 遇見全球創業之星」專館,打造人工智慧及大數據應用、數位醫療及教育科技、物聯網與能源3大展區;線上展也開設InnoVEX新創與創新展區(InnoVEXVirtual),匯聚各國新創隊伍。

外貿協會指出,今年除了連續多年在InnoVEX展區籌組國家館的法國、韓國、荷蘭等國持續參展外,歐洲復興開發銀行(EBRD)更首次帶領來自7個國家的17 家廠商設立專館參展。

今年COMPUTEX也擴大線上視訊論壇規模,邀集超微(AMD)、安謀(Arm)、英特爾(Intel)、美光(Micron)、輝達(NVIDIA)、高通(Qualcomm)、恩智浦(NXP)及Supermicro 等指標國際企業的執行長或資深高階主管,在線上發表主題演講。

其中Intel執行副總裁暨營收長霍特豪斯(Michelle Johnston Holthaus)將以釋放創新為主題,說明新任執行長季辛格(Pat Gelsinger)的策略;Arm 執行長席格斯(Simon Segars)以激發世界疫後復甦的潛能為題,剖析人工智慧AI如何協助人類回應氣候變遷的挑戰、強化資安防禦力。

AMD總裁暨執行長蘇姿丰(Dr. Lisa Su)以加速推動高效能運算產業體系的發展為題,暢談未來運算的願景;美光總裁暨執行長梅羅特拉(Sanjay Mehrotra)將分享資料經濟新生活為記憶體和儲存帶來的創新機會;NXP總裁暨執行長席福(Kurt Sievers)分享AI領域的發展與佈局規劃。

此外主辦單位之一台北市電腦公會也同步舉辦活動,其中COMPUTEX FORUM 2021將在6月1日到3日線上直播,聚焦未來車用科技、半導體、人工智慧物聯網(AIoT )、5G通訊、資安與新創創業等趨勢,規劃近40場次、超過60位科技大廠講師發表專家觀點。

其中Future Car論壇將於6月1日登場,邀請多家資通訊大廠暢談電動車、車用半導體與自駕車應用議題,包括日月光、英飛凌(Infineon)、輝達、瑞昱(Realtek)、瑞薩(Renesas)、友達(AUO)、和碩(PEGATRON)、台達電(Delta)、MIH聯盟等。

公會在展會期間也推出COMPUTEX CYBERWORLD線上展平台,聚焦6月買主關注COMPUTEX高峰期,平台匯集上千家資通訊供應商,超過2000件科技產品,並有400則以上影音特輯,提供全年無休線上展覽服務。

訂閱《早安世界》電子報 每天3分鐘掌握10件天下事

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此外與COMPUTEX同期登場的亞洲新創論壇InnoVEX,也將以InnoVEX Online線上展型態展出,年度新創論壇InnoVEX FORUM規劃在6月3日線上登場。

公會指出,InnoVEX FORUM將邀請Ceres Capital、Mesh Ventures、StarFab Accelerator、Tohmatsu Venture、比翼加速器(BE Accelerator)、高通(Qualcomm)、趨勢科技(Trend Micro)等多家國際創投、加速器與科技大廠,透過網路或現場座談方式,與來自各國新創團隊探討後疫情商機,並聚焦5G創新、健康照護與資安應用議題。(編輯:郭無患)1100529

石門水庫持續降雨 預估可增加桃園18天半用水量

2021/5/31 18:06(5/31 18:59 更新)
石門水庫集水區31日持續降雨,民眾透過石門水庫即時影像只能看見一片雨霧茫茫,即時影像上有近2000人同步觀看,可見大家都很關心水情。中央社記者吳睿騏桃園攝 110年5月31日
石門水庫集水區31日持續降雨,民眾透過石門水庫即時影像只能看見一片雨霧茫茫,即時影像上有近2000人同步觀看,可見大家都很關心水情。中央社記者吳睿騏桃園攝 110年5月31日

(中央社記者吳睿騏桃園31日電)受鋒面影響,桃園各地持續降雨,北水局表示,石門水庫從28日到今天下午4時,累計降雨量約121.6毫米,預計帶來約2300萬噸的總降雨效益,可增加桃園約18天半的用水量。

水利署北區水資源局副局長郭耀程表示,根據水利署統計,從28日凌晨0時到31日下午4時,累計降雨量約為121.6毫米,預估總降雨效益約2300萬噸入流量,以近日桃園市一天用水量約123萬噸計算,大約可增加18天半的用水量,且還在持續增加。

郭耀程指出,石門水庫受惠於這一波梅雨鋒面降雨的影響,從昨天下午,石門水庫集水區降雨不斷,對於石門水庫的水情相當有幫助。

民眾透過石門水庫即時影像,也只能看見一片雨霧茫茫,有民眾留言「橙橙應該可以解除了」,也有民眾寫下「邊看下雨邊處理青花菜」或是「雨下不停,太開心了」,石門水庫即時影像上有近2000人同步觀看,可見大家都很關心水情。

根據經濟部水利署的資料顯示,截至今天下午5時30分,石門水庫的水位207.67公尺,有效蓄水量為2355.60萬噸,蓄水率為11.62%,郭耀程說,目前蓄水量仍然偏低,民眾還是要持續節約用水。(編輯:李錫璋)1100531

桃園各地持續降雨,北水局表示,石門水庫從28日到31 日下午4時,累計降雨量約121.6毫米,預計帶來約2300 萬噸的總降雨效益,可增加桃園約18天半的用水量。中央社記者吳睿騏桃園攝 110年5月31日
桃園各地持續降雨,北水局表示,石門水庫從28日到31 日下午4時,累計降雨量約121.6毫米,預計帶來約2300 萬噸的總降雨效益,可增加桃園約18天半的用水量。中央社記者吳睿騏桃園攝 110年5月31日

苗栗台中南投夜防豪雨 6/5另一波鋒面全台有雨

2021/5/31 17:55(5/31 18:59 更新)
氣象局預估31日晚間雨勢持續,提醒苗栗、台中、南投等地防豪雨。中央社記者鄭清元攝 110年5月31日
氣象局預估31日晚間雨勢持續,提醒苗栗、台中、南投等地防豪雨。中央社記者鄭清元攝 110年5月31日

(中央社記者張雄風台北31日電)氣象局預估今晚雨勢持續,提醒苗栗、台中、南投等地防豪雨,6月2日起天氣逐日回穩,僅山區有午後對流雨;下一波鋒面約6月5日快速通過台灣,雖然主要降雨僅1天,但全台有雨。

中央氣象局今天傍晚更新豪雨特報,滯留鋒面影響,易有短時強降雨,苗栗縣地區及台中市、南投縣山區有局部大雨或豪雨,台南以北地區及花蓮山區有局部大雨發生的機率,注意雷擊及強陣風,山區慎防坍方、落石及溪水暴漲,低窪地區慎防淹水。

豪雨特報地區包含苗栗縣、台中市、南投縣;大雨特報地區為基隆市、台北市、新北市、桃園市、新竹縣市、彰化縣、雲林縣、嘉義縣市、台南市、花蓮縣。

氣象局預報員陳伊秀告訴中央社記者,預估今晚雨勢仍會持續,明天上半天鋒面北移至台灣北部海面後,雨勢會逐漸趨緩;6月2日至4日天氣趨穩,降雨區域、時間會逐日縮減,主要以山區午後對流雨為主。

陳伊秀表示,6月5日會有鋒面再度接近台灣,不過這波鋒面移動快速,約1天的時間就會南移至巴士海峽,但移動過程中全台仍有雨。

至於輕度颱風彩雲的發展,陳伊秀表示,目前彩雲的移動路線持續向北,但稍微偏向菲律賓陸地,未來整體環境可能不適合發展,預估至巴士海峽附近就會降為熱帶低壓,對6月5日的鋒面也沒有太大影響。(編輯:張雅淨)1100531

傳統市場分流採買 各縣市措施一次看【不斷更新】

2021/5/31 18:17(5/31 20:51 更新)
為避免傳統市場摩肩擦踵成為防疫破口,各縣市政府呼籲民眾少去多買、一次購足,部分縣市實施依身分證字號尾數單雙分流管制。(中央社檔案照片)
為避免傳統市場摩肩擦踵成為防疫破口,各縣市政府呼籲民眾少去多買、一次購足,部分縣市實施依身分證字號尾數單雙分流管制。(中央社檔案照片)

(中央社網站)本土疫情未歇,全國嚴守三級防疫警戒,各地人潮、車潮明顯減少,為避免傳統市場摩肩擦踵成為防疫破口,各縣市政府呼籲民眾少去多買、一次購足,部分縣市實施依身分證字號尾數單雙分流管制。以下統整各縣市相關措施:

 

台北

 

台北市市場處提出「市場防疫提升計畫」,6月起要求公有零售市場實施「容留管制」和「提前收市」2項措施,場內以容留人數2/3為上限,若人潮超過上限,則暫停開放民眾入場;販售生鮮食品的公有零售市場每日營業時間調整至下午4時完成收市。台北市長柯文哲呼籲民眾一週採買兩次、一次多買一些。

 

新北

 

新北市長侯友宜表示,傳統市場管制作業方式授權168個市場自治會訂立,要落實人流管控、實聯制,警察會強力取締違規攤商,無法達到防疫標準就停業。

 

宜蘭

 

民眾採買應全程佩戴口罩和落實實聯制,以身分證尾數單雙號分流採買,市場隔週一休息,每週一上午及三、五、日由單號採買,每週一下午及二、四、六由雙號採買。

 

基隆

 

基隆市長林右昌呼籲傳統市場民眾自主分流,依身分證字號尾數,單日單數、雙日雙數,分流採買。大眾若無法做到自主分流,市府會強制執行。

 

桃園、新竹縣市、苗栗

 

傳統市場分流管制,身分證字號尾數單數,週三、五、日採買,身分證號尾數雙數,週二、四、六採買。桃園、新竹市5月31日起實施;新竹、苗栗縣6月1日啟動。

桃園市長鄭文燦表示,重點在於戴口罩、禁內用、不群聚3個原則,呼籲市民到市場採買時,要快買、少停、一次購足,減少在市場停留時間。

 

台中

 

身分證字號單數者每週三、五、日採買;雙數者每週二、四、六採買,建議一次買足。目前以宣導為主,並持續要求各市場強化實聯制及進出人員配戴口罩、加強消毒頻率。

台中市長盧秀燕表示,台中市許多農會都有推出線上採購,也有市民免運費優惠,民眾不用外出,蔬果箱就會配送到家中,減少感染風險。

 

嘉義

 

呼籲民眾盡量線上購買,實體採買者依身分證字號尾數分流,單數者每週三、五、日採買;雙數者二、四、六採買。

 

台南

 

台南市117處公民營市場全面執行實聯制,市府也將統一提供外圍流動攤商QR Code,以納入管控。台南市市長黃偉哲呼籲,進入市場前若發現人潮太多,可另擇時間採買,做好自主保護,也能保護他人。

 

高雄

 

呼籲民眾每週買一次、一次購足,身分證字號單數者每週三、五、日採買;雙數者每週二、四、六採買。若無法落實實聯制或人流管制、配戴口罩等,將暫停營業,6月1日起強力執法。

 

屏東

 

傳統市場分流升級,身分證尾數單數每週一、三、五、日採買;雙數二、四、六採買,公有市場租金、清潔費免收3個月,減少攤販負擔。1100531

新加坡擴大接種覆蓋率 將允許醫療業者引進疫苗

2021/5/31 21:43(5/31 21:51 更新)
為提高新加坡COVID-19疫苗接種覆蓋率,星國衛生部長王乙康31日表示,將允許私人醫療業者申請引進獲世界衛生組織批准使用的疫苗。(新加坡通訊及新聞部提供)中央社記者侯姿瑩新加坡傳真 110年5月31日
為提高新加坡COVID-19疫苗接種覆蓋率,星國衛生部長王乙康31日表示,將允許私人醫療業者申請引進獲世界衛生組織批准使用的疫苗。(新加坡通訊及新聞部提供)中央社記者侯姿瑩新加坡傳真 110年5月31日

(中央社記者侯姿瑩新加坡31日專電)為提高COVID-19 疫苗接種覆蓋率,新加坡衛生部長王乙康今天表示,將允許私人醫療業者申請引進獲世界衛生組織批准使用的疫苗,包括中國國藥集團(Sinopharm)研發的疫苗。

此外,隨著新加坡持續推動2019冠狀病毒疾病(COVID-19)疫苗接種計畫,衛生部表示,超過40萬名的當地學校及高等教育學府學生明天起可陸續預約接種。

王乙康今天在新加坡跨部門抗疫工作小組線上記者會宣布,衛生部將允許私人醫療業者透過既有的特別採用程序(Special Access Route)管道,引進世衛緊急使用清單上的COVID-19疫苗,以擴大接種覆蓋率。

目前已列在世衛緊急使用清單上的疫苗包括美國輝瑞大藥廠(Pfizer)與德國生技公司BioNTech研發的疫苗,以及英國阿斯特捷利康(AstraZeneca)、美國莫德納(Moderna)、嬌生集團(Johnson & Johnson)、中國國藥集團的疫苗。

新加坡先前採購Pfizer-BioNTech、莫德納及中國科興(Sinovac)疫苗,目前已批准使用Pfizer-BioNTech及莫德納。新加坡於2月底接收首批科興疫苗,但衛生科學局至今尚未批准使用。

王乙康表示,當科興疫苗獲得世衛批准,新加坡當地醫療業者也可向星政府申請使用已運抵新加坡的20萬劑科興疫苗,為那些想接種這款疫苗的人施打。

他回應媒體詢問時也說,經由特別採用程序引進的疫苗,主要仍是提供新加坡居民使用,疫苗價格由私人醫療業者決定。

人口約570萬人的新加坡自去年底啟動疫苗接種計畫,優先為醫療及前線人員、70歲以上的年長者施打,隨後逐漸擴及其他年齡層的接種對象,目前輪到40歲至44歲的民眾接種。根據衛生部數據,截至5月30日,近230萬人已接種至少一劑,其中170萬人已接種2劑。

下一階段的接種對象是學生。新加坡教育部長陳振聲表示,教育部希望利用6月的學校假期,盡快為學生接種疫苗。

教育部指出,研究顯示,輝瑞、莫德納疫苗分別可讓12歲及以上、18歲及以上者安全使用。

另外,衛生部宣布,經專家評估相關資料後,決定放寬限制,讓孕婦、正在餵母乳的婦女登記接種輝瑞、莫德納疫苗。

衛生部也說,若疫苗如期抵達的話,預計6月中可開始接受39歲及以下的成人登記接種,由於這個年齡層的人數眾多,將優先開放新加坡公民登記。

新加坡政府先前表示,規劃為所有健康狀況符合接種資格的新加坡公民及長期居民(包括永久居民及長期准證持有者)免費接種疫苗。(編輯:陳惠珍)1100531

新加坡教育部長陳振聲31日表示,6月1日起開放學生預約接種COVID-19疫苗。(新加坡通訊及新聞部提供)中央社記者侯姿瑩新加坡傳真 110年5月31日
新加坡教育部長陳振聲31日表示,6月1日起開放學生預約接種COVID-19疫苗。(新加坡通訊及新聞部提供)中央社記者侯姿瑩新加坡傳真 110年5月31日
新加坡推動COVID-19疫苗接種計畫,全島廣設40個疫苗接種中心,圖為其中一個接種中心。攝於110年4月24日中央社記者侯姿瑩新加坡攝 110年5月31日
新加坡推動COVID-19疫苗接種計畫,全島廣設40個疫苗接種中心,圖為其中一個接種中心。攝於110年4月24日中央社記者侯姿瑩新加坡攝 110年5月31日
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